The three basic outlines for how to approach instruction are defined and given meaning in relationship with instruction. Fifteen principles are involved in the discussion of instructional design, and from these fifteen principles it is intended that seven will be further explored through examples of videos in which they have been violated. In learning how to appropriately use a theory it is often beneficial to see how it has been erroneously applied, or not followed. In looking at the principles of instructional design, it is valuable to see how others have failed to follow the ideas put forth and the effect that these missed steps have on the information that is intended. Merrill on Instructional Design M. David Merrill (2008) has been in the instructional design business for about 40 years. His opinion is that the internet has allowed for easy access to the public, but has created a glut of information dumps through which true instruction is ineffective. He assesses the glut of work as representative of an inability to create effective instruction at a broad level, with even professional organizations falling short of those principles that have been determined as necessary to create effective instruction. Merrill (2008) outlines three important aspects of designing learning. The first is the need to show people what is being instructed rather than just tell. Giving people an opportunity to practice what has been learned is more than just multiple choice questions. Getting them involved in more complex tasks is required for good learning. The final aspect of educating that is important for learning is motivation. Real learning comes when a student is able to do something that they were not able to accomplish before the education event, with a real world application being the reward so that they can do what they could not do before the instruction. Being able to do something new is the greatest motivational factor available to the instructor, according to Merrill. He states that through demonstration, activation of practical application, then through the motivation of learning how to do something, the basics have been covered to improve instruction. Broken down to simple, one word explanations, a teacher must engage the student by showing, practicing, and doing. The emphasis on real world application seems to have a strong focus for learning practices, where abstract concepts are far more difficult to achieve than concepts that are applicable in the real world. Clark and Mayer (2011) break this idea down into farther into three additional types of teaching, the first being show and tell which is receptive, show and do which is directive, and teaching by problem solving which is guided discovery. However, these three concepts are based upon the idea that the student is motivated towards learning because they will be able to do something after the conclusion of the learning experience. The last two of these types of teaching are particularly directed towards creating a system in which the student is given a form of a doable result from the instruction. Overview of 15 Principles of Instructional Design The discussion of education in relationship to instructional design is based upon the use of principles that guide instruction towards affecting the student to engage in learning. The first principle is alignment between activities and outcomes. In order to create effective learning, it is important
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Running Head: INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN Evaluating instructional design Evaluating instructional design Introduction Instructional design comes from the idea that instruction can be programmed with the effect of creating a more efficient system in which the student is attracted to the act of learning…
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