Assignment 2 Professional Development Literature Reviews By Vanetta Grier-Felix Professional Development EDD 8114 OL1 CRN 32175 Dr. Mendez NOVA Southeastern University February 17, 2012 Site-Based Teacher Professional Development: Evaluation of Practices IntroductionCurrent changes in education both at the global and local levels demand that teachers should develop their professional qualities to be capable of responding to the needs of the information society…
Indeed, along with students and school administration, teachers are the major agents of intended change at school. This paper focuses on site-based teacher professional development due to the fact this has been recognized one of the most effective professional development approaches (Gaible & Burns, 2005; Borzack, 2008). Site-based professional development refers to “intensive learning by groups of teachers in a school or region, promoting profound and long-term changes in instructional methods” (Gaible & Burns, 2005, p.25). Specifically, site-based professional development takes place at certain sites: schools, teacher colleges, or teacher resource centers. It is suggested that teachers collaborate with “in-house” (in other words, local) facilitators in order to engage in the process of developing their pedagogical skills, as well as technology and content competence. Site-based programs are also known to offer the opportunity to gradually engage into the learning process since it usually concentrates on particular problems faced by individual teachers in the situations when they try to carry out innovative techniques within classroom settings (Gaible& Burns, 2005, p.25). Site-Based Teacher Professional Development: Research OverviewIn their article “Using Technology to Train Teachers”, Gaible and Burns (2005) discuss a variety of approaches to Teacher Professional Development. Site-based TPD practices are considered the most effective in comparison with standardized PD and self-directed PD. To illustrate, the authors assert that “site-based TPD, since it addresses locally based needs and reflects local conditions, should be the cornerstone of teacher development across the education system.” (Gaible & Burns, 2005, p.2). The benefits of employing the site-based practices are based on the facts that the latter unite people in an attempt to solve local issues and respond to local needs over a certain period of time, boost individual initiative and offer collaborative approaches to existing problems, enable TPD to flow in a more flexible way ensuring its sustainability and intensive character, and offer ongoing learning opportunities for a set of teachers (Gaible & Burns, 2005, p.7). As for the disadvantages of site-based TPD, these are thought to be related to time limitations (they are time intensive) and cost and availability limitations (low-resource districts, areas where some war conflicts take place, or just remote places appear to hardly benefit from the site-based TPD). Additionally, troubles with cost include the ongoing PD will require recurrent funding; additional costs need to be spent on producing training materials, buying special equipment; extra expenditures should be spent on facilitators’ transportation (Gaible & Burns, 2005, p. 22).All in all, the authors suggest that site-based TPD programs be more effective than other approaches when there is a critical need to change teaching practices, teachers’ professional competence calls for a considerable enhancement, teaching/learning objectives ...
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It also has the purpose of making students’ work accessible to those at home and in the host country, as they show how much they have progressed through their acquiring English skills. The forums include the teaching forum, in which teachers can discuss teaching strategies with one another; the student forum, where students can get together and get help in the student forums.
Since both autonomy and external knowledge have their benefits and risks, Haas aims to provide information in recognizing the auspicious conditions to minimize the risks related to autonomy and external knowledge. Haas gathered data from a multinational organization employing over 10,000 employees worldwide.
More often than not, professionals and writers in the field of networking and accountability choose to evaluate one particular aspect of the discussed dilemma. As a result, one article can never help understand the scope of difficulties and complexities underlying accountability systems in networking governments and administrations.
Therefore, it is important for every teacher to be knowledgeable of the subject matter and the strategies that lead to success. The easiest way to access information on effective teaching is through reading books. Book sources provide a panoramic view of the learner, the trends in teaching, and the educational system as a whole.
Other new features are such as increased background information focusing the historical effects on discipline and how past efforts have influenced present approaches to discipline. The book looks at 18 models that can be used to enhance school discipline.
These are Nash Gary B. from UCLA, who is a prominent social historian; Dunn Ross E. from San Diego, who writes about Islamic, African, and world history. He was the first head of the World History Association; and Crabtree Charlotte, who taught curriculums at UCLA1.
The Gift of Fear by Gavin De Becker underpins that violence and abusiveness is unpredictable for almost everyone. In this book, the author has presented the ways through which people can eliminate risk of
uction as far as performance is concerned, since the only recipients of a performance are the direct spectator audiences that are present at theater or any other artistic stage when the act itself is being staged (Bial, 147). Performance occurs in real-time, at a time when it
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