263). Such is high regard for music that long after modernisation and expansion of science and technology, there is still room for the inclusion of music in nearly every aspect of human society and culture from business (i.e. showbiz and merchandising) to social stance (i.e. music in defining political standpoint), thus it is still included in nearly every school curricula from the past to the present.
Music education among various levels of schooling has been the norm for most educational systems and often lauded as a strong means of empowering and changing students and teachers (Abrahams, 2005, p. 12). Positive effects of music learning like instilling different virtues and attitudes among music students such as discipline and teamwork and improving literacy rates and increasing social awareness within the musical context are included in the many reasons why music is still a strong part of educational curricula in all levels of education despite a world-wide decrease in funds allotted for education in most nations (Philpott & Plummeridge, 2001; Tagg, 1982, p. 40). Aside from music as a universal concept and idea, it is considered a part of tradition and culture, giving people their unique identity amidst a fast-paced modern life (Lamont & Maton, 2010). Music’s importance and relevance is still recognised, and as a strong component of aesthetics music education remains to be integrated in most schools’ current curricula.
At present most schools’ music curricula focus on traditional teaching music through the use of different scales, notations, sight reading, harmonisation and other musical concepts associated with traditional music lessons, along with musical styles of church hymns, orchestral and solo instruments typical of the early European classical pieces (Swanwick, 2002). While there has been observed advanced developments in other curricula such as science, mathematics, literature, and sociology, teaching methods ...Show more