However, today the indigenous population makes up 2% of the entire Australian population as a result of European settlement and the effects of removal of people out of traditional lands, impacts of towns and cities’ populations.
Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples’ concern as a disadvantaged community in Australia has been well documented in various studies. This population is disadvantaged in many areas of social concern thus has been left behind in terms of education and employment. The council of Australian government (COAG) in a report entitled (Chapman et al, 3014), “overcoming Indigenous Disadvantage (OID)” The there` exist a gap in life expectancy of 11.5 years for males and 9.7 years for females, an indication of healthcare inequity. According to the report by COAG, there is high infant mortality of about 9.7 deaths in 1000 live births which is more than twice compared to the non-indigenous community (Peiris et al, 2012).
Access to participation in quality early childhood education is very important as it provides a solid education foundation for young people at school. Research has shown that only 33% of indigenous young children of 3 years had enrolled in preschool compared to 43% of non-indigenous children (Price, 2012). The statistics of early childhood education given above were reflected also with respect to reading writing and numeracy. Data collected from the Ministerial council on education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (MCEETYA) showed that smaller percentage of Australia’s Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people met the national minimum standards for reading, numeracy and writing compared to the non indigenous pupils. During the period between 2001 and 2007, the percentage of indigenous year 7 pupils who met national minimum standards were about 74% for numeracy, 65% for reading and 74% for writing which shows a big gap