Rather, it is a thinking process, where the reader thinks about what the symbols, signs and the words mean (p.99). To further contextualize the definition, the authors cited explanation from other sources that underscore how the reading comprehension reduces uncertainty and builds the bridge between the new and the known (p.99). The RAND Corporation also developed a similar definition, that which considers reading comprehension as the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language (Sweet and Snow 2003, p.10). Based from these definitions, one can infer several important insights. First, reading comprehension is a big concept that encompasses word and symbol recognition, the level of reading fluency and the ability to understand and think about the texts being read. Consequently, this paper will refer to reading comprehension as inclusive of cognition, fluency and word recognition. In addition, the framework also reveals that it is a construct resulting from social and/or cultural processes. The understanding required for the symbols and texts entails the influences of the environment, not unlike how children acquire cognitive abilities and behaviors. ...Show more
Influences on Reading Comprehension Based from the available literature on the reading comprehension theme, one will find that it is a cognitive process, hence, its acquisition and development is influenced by environmental factors. This paper will some of these factors, particularly how technology, student motivation and differentiated instruction impact reading comprehension, fluency and word recognition…
Reading Fluency Strategies for Home and School
Reading is a challenge for many students, and those who struggle in this area realize very quickly that school is much harder for them. Therefore, this paper will discuss some of the techniques available to help struggling readers achieve better fluency and comprehension when they read, thereby improving their overall academic performance.
According to the paper the young reader who does not have the phonetic awareness or cannot produce the phonetic coding, will have to be given access to other paths. There are three elements to determine fluency in language reading: the level of transparency , mapping of the 3 stages and acquisition of the phonological Short Term Memory. The fourth stage which is not documented is the transfer of word recognition of one's native language.
Language by ear (aural), language by mouth (oral), language by eye (reading) and language by hand (writing) were the different components. Relationships had been found between the reading and writing systems and they were divided into unidirectional and bidirectional.
If children struggle to decode words, then they do not have mental resources or attention left over to dedicate to enjoyment and comprehension. This, therefore, means that they are actually reading but only word calling. One of the key goals of reading instructions is to enhance fluency.
Some proficient readers may take the ability to read with proficiency for granted, but learning to read with proficiency is a long-term developmental process that involves many interventions and contributions of various kinds. Struggling readers are those individuals who have trouble in grasping the relation of the spoken and written language.
This study will examine the concept of reading with comprehension. More specifically, the study seeks to emphasize on learning difficulties, which may be involved in reading with comprehension. The study will focus on these difficulties and the challenges they pose to the understanding of comprehension.
In the debated stance of English fluency, sentences reflect an accelerated degree of craftsmanship that comprises the consistently stronger along with the varied structures of phraseology, which makes the oral reading easier as well as enjoyable. Furthermore, sentence fluency is also ascertained to indulge rhythm and movement.
s with dyslexia, it is crucial for schools in Hong Kong to consider the need to incorporate the use of multisensory teaching materials into the school curriculum.
To enhance the reading skills of students with dyslexia, it is necessary to go through the different parts of the
Struggling readers are those individuals who have trouble in grasping the relation of the spoken and written language. These include decoding, comprehension and retention. The key questions that are frequently asked about struggling readers is the nature or the