Influences on Reading Comprehension Based from the available literature on the reading comprehension theme, one will find that it is a cognitive process, hence, its acquisition and development is influenced by environmental factors. This paper will some of these factors, particularly how technology, student motivation and differentiated instruction impact reading comprehension, fluency and word recognition…
Rather, it is a thinking process, where the reader thinks about what the symbols, signs and the words mean (p.99). To further contextualize the definition, the authors cited explanation from other sources that underscore how the reading comprehension reduces uncertainty and builds the bridge between the new and the known (p.99). The RAND Corporation also developed a similar definition, that which considers reading comprehension as the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language (Sweet and Snow 2003, p.10). Based from these definitions, one can infer several important insights. First, reading comprehension is a big concept that encompasses word and symbol recognition, the level of reading fluency and the ability to understand and think about the texts being read. Consequently, this paper will refer to reading comprehension as inclusive of cognition, fluency and word recognition. In addition, the framework also reveals that it is a construct resulting from social and/or cultural processes. The understanding required for the symbols and texts entails the influences of the environment, not unlike how children acquire cognitive abilities and behaviors. These points are important because they underpin the position that technology, motivation and instruction are crucial in developing reading comprehension ability. A study undertaken by Lietz (1996) measured the reading comprehension skills of students across six countries. There were at least four variables identified as major influences in a learner’s reading comprehension: gender, the education of the parents, the education of the learner, and the number of books and resources available (p.398). This study corroborates the position that reading comprehension is affected by environmental factors. For example, the education of the parents implies numerous dimensions. First, there is the level of awareness regarding the learner’s cognitive development. A higher educational attainment would mean a better understanding of the psychology of the learner. It could also be influence the perspective of the parents on education, academic performance and reading. Based from such perspective, the availability or unavailability of resources – which was also an identified variable - such as books, computer, the Internet, among others are determined. The body of literature on this subject echoes this theme. Alcantara et al. (2003), found that the attitudes of the parents, siblings and peers as well as the home background (i.e. whether the learner is read to or provided with sufficient reading materials) are crucial in the acquisition of reading comprehension ability (p.89). What these studies highlight is the fact that reading comprehension is a skill that is learned through a complex process, involving many factors. Student Motivation The student motivation is easily the most important variable that influences reading comprehension or the acquisition of the ability. As has been mentioned earlier, reading comprehension is a cognitive process. This prompted Paris and Stahl (2005) to conclude that motivational processes are integral to it. It was argued that, generally, motivation, along other constructs, is behind comprehension, which for its part is considered as a psychological phenomenon (p.29). They demonstrated the dynamics of ...
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Reading Fluency Strategies for Home and School
Reading is a challenge for many students, and those who struggle in this area realize very quickly that school is much harder for them. Therefore, this paper will discuss some of the techniques available to help struggling readers achieve better fluency and comprehension when they read, thereby improving their overall academic performance.
According to the paper the young reader who does not have the phonetic awareness or cannot produce the phonetic coding, will have to be given access to other paths. There are three elements to determine fluency in language reading: the level of transparency , mapping of the 3 stages and acquisition of the phonological Short Term Memory. The fourth stage which is not documented is the transfer of word recognition of one's native language.
Language by ear (aural), language by mouth (oral), language by eye (reading) and language by hand (writing) were the different components. Relationships had been found between the reading and writing systems and they were divided into unidirectional and bidirectional.
If children struggle to decode words, then they do not have mental resources or attention left over to dedicate to enjoyment and comprehension. This, therefore, means that they are actually reading but only word calling. One of the key goals of reading instructions is to enhance fluency.
This study will examine the concept of reading with comprehension. More specifically, the study seeks to emphasize on learning difficulties, which may be involved in reading with comprehension. The study will focus on these difficulties and the challenges they pose to the understanding of comprehension.
Therefore, comprehension determines the meaning after reading a text, listening to other individuals as they read or after viewing texts in the media. Comprehension is very important in the development of literacy skills in the contemporary society. It also helps individuals to understand the work written by varied authors, equips an individual with new information, and facilitates the relaxation process (Rasinski & Rasinski, 2009).
In the debated stance of English fluency, sentences reflect an accelerated degree of craftsmanship that comprises the consistently stronger along with the varied structures of phraseology, which makes the oral reading easier as well as enjoyable. Furthermore, sentence fluency is also ascertained to indulge rhythm and movement.
s with dyslexia, it is crucial for schools in Hong Kong to consider the need to incorporate the use of multisensory teaching materials into the school curriculum.
To enhance the reading skills of students with dyslexia, it is necessary to go through the different parts of the
Struggling readers are those individuals who have trouble in grasping the relation of the spoken and written language. These include decoding, comprehension and retention. The key questions that are frequently asked about struggling readers is the nature or the