Road wheels are designed to operate in a variety of environments as they run on dry, muddy, and water-logged paths. The tires are also designed to run on smooth and rough terrains. The material that is used for making road tires should hence be elastic, wear resistant, durable, strong, and resistant to oxidation and corrosion. This paper discusses the materials and processes used in the making of road tires. In the manufacture of tires, numerous materials are assembled together, built around a metallic drum, then cured and heat under pressure. The various components used in the manufacture of road tires include; rubber, black carbon, and chemicals and a steel wire combined and cured under high pressure. Natural rubber is obtained from rubber tree is used mainly in the manufacture of the rubber part that is exposed to the surface; this is because it is considered durable and does not wear out easily due to its flexibility and elasticity properties. It also has high abrasion effects and can withstand both high and low heat (Dhir 264). Natural rubber is preferred as it is easily obtainable from rubber growing countries like Liberia and other European countries. It has close substitutes; synthetic rubber such as Stirene-butadiene co-polymer (SBR), and Polybutadiene . However, synthetic rubber is not preferred because it does not acquire heat first as compared to natural rubber with high heat building properties necessary in the manufacture of tires. The process of polymerization used in the manufacture of Stirene-butadiene co-polymer (SBR), and Polybutadiene is less preferred since it is expensive in terms of the cost involve (Lim 85). Black rubber component is also one of the materials used in the manufacture of tire. The component is normally obtainable from combustion of oil and natural gas in limited amount of oxygen. This component is normally added to give the rubber its black color. This material is normally used since it gives an abrasive effect to the rubber and to offer reinforcement to the rubber. The carbon black is also preferred since it is a good conductor of heat. It therefore conducts excess heat from the tires thereby increasing the durability of the tires. Fumed silica is considered as substitute for the black carbon due to the fact that they have low rolling loss; however, it is not always used since it has very low abrasive effect, and is not economical in terms of cost as was observed by (National Petroleum News 123). Black carbon is also easily obtainable. The tires is also composed of the Beads made of steel with high tensile properties within the rubber. The steel is coated with other materials like bronze and brass to protect it from rust. The steel lining is meant to make the tires firm by increasing it strength (Jazar 11). Steel is mainly preferred to other metals since it is strong and is composed of alloy of iron and zinc with abundant supply. Titanium is however considered as best substitute for steel since it can withstand high temperatures, strong and highly elastic, but it has the disadvantage that it is expensive in terms of cost. It’s also not easily available and therefore this makes engineers prefer the steel to titanium (Sweeney 34) The body ply is another component of the tire. It is mainly manufactured using fabrics like rayon, nylon, polyester, and Kevlar between two layers of rubber. The fabric material is used to reinforce the tire system and make it
Name: Institution: Course: Date: Material Science: Road Tires The road tire is the outer fitting of the wheel; the part that comes into contact with the ground in motor vehicles and similar machines. In vehicles, bicycles, airplanes and similar machines, the road tires essentially bear the total load of the machine…
As one man among that 38 percent, Sargeant became a hobo, living in flophouses and jungle camps off the rail yards. When he got desperate he would wander into town, commit a minor crime, and spend a few nights in jail with a roof over his head. On the occasion described by Hughes, Sargeant is beaten on the head by the police and hallucinates a conversation with Christ.
For the same reason, Socrates had to consume hemlock long ago. Hughes’ story On the Road echoes similar sentiments. It deals with the factors like our egos and prejudices that blind us to the absolute beauty of truth, life and their worth. The story, without cynicism, mirrors the agony of the segregated and it is a contradiction that such segregation should be found rooted deeply in the culture of a nation that was ‘conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal’.
Recycling is also aimed at reducing the consumption of unused raw materials, reducing air and water pollution, lowering the emission of greenhouse gases and reducing the use of energy (Burn, p. 615). Recycling can only be done on various recyclable materials which include electronics, papers, textiles, glass, plastic, metals, tires and many other products (Carl, p. 98).
The beginning of the 16th century and the end of the 15th century were a time of incredible upheaval. Society was shifting drastically from moment to moment, and as with any drastic shifts in a society, this was accompanied by all manner of uproars and issues.
This idea did not come to fruition until much later. In 1923, the idea was reintroduced during the Fifth International Conference of American States, but this time, it was introduced as an idea for a highway and not as a railway, as it had initially being conceived in 1889 (United States Federal Highway Administration).
The other propose further network analysis in order to identify 'Opinion Leaders'. A conclusion follows.
The Scottish Road Network Authority (SRNA) has a long-standing "conservative, male dominated, professional engineering focused and very hands on" corporate culture (Burton-Jones, n.d., p.
This shows that the activity based approach shows the actual cost for each product by tracing down the origin of the cost. Hence, the customers of one product will not be charged with the cost which was incurred for other products.
When the market prices are used as the transfer prices, it is disadvantageous for L ltd.