In addition it contains between 32% and 42% of a coating filler such as limestone followed by some 28% to 42% of granules. The remaining portion of asphalt shingles is composed of fiberglass, cotton rags, paper and adhesives (Carter, 2008). The use of asphalt is pervasive throughout shingle manufacturing and asphalt constitutes a major part of shingles. The large amount of asphalt present in roofing shingles make these shingles suitable for recycling applications such as for constructing roads. It is estimated that the United States alone manufactures around 12.5 billion square feet of asphalt shingles in a single year (Asphalt Roofing Manufacturer's Association, 2012). In recent years there has been a renewed emphasis to recycle asphalt shingles for road based applications since the shingles contain a large amount of asphalt that can be reused. The Environmental Protection Agency estimates that around 11 million tons of waste is created each year from asphalt shingles in the United States. This waste is comprised of around one million tons of scrap generated by various asphalt shingle manufacturers while around ten million tons of waste is generated from construction sites (Environmental Protection Agency, 2005). This indicates that asphalt shingle supply can be considered as a reliable source for use in road construction given its continuous supply. Another notable aspect is that asphalt shingles and their related waste comprises around 8% of building related waste. Also, asphalt shingles represent around 10% of the waste created from demolition debris. Recycling one ton of asphalt shingles is estimated to conserve one barrel of crude oil (Owens Corning, 2011). Asphalt shingles can be recycled for use in a number of different road based applications including aggregate for road construction, creating pavements, to control dust content on gravel roads etc. It is typical to use asphalt shingles to form the hot aggregate mixture used for manufacturing and paving roads. The amount of asphalt shingles is kept constant at 5% in the aggregate mixture for desirable properties. It has been researched that increasing the amount of asphalt shingles to 7.5% in the aggregate mixtures renders the mixture soft and compromises pavement performance. In addition, using asphalt shingles from construction projects may also result in brittle pavements that might crack especially at low temperatures. For this reason asphalt shingles are typically used where stone mastic asphalt mixtures are required (Newcomb, Stroup-Gardiner, Weikle, & Drescher, 1993). Waste asphalt shingles are recycled by shredding them to half an inch size for batch plants and shredding them to a quarter inch size for continuous feed plants. These materials are added to the overall aggregate mixture before the virgin asphalt is added for binding. The waste shingles that are typically used for creating HMA contain hard asphalt. The combination of this hard asphalt and the soft virgin asphalt tend to provide highly desirable properties to the overall aggregate mixture. Generally the resulting mixture of waste hard asphalt and soft virgin asphalt provides better stability as well as better resistance to rutting which make it desirable for use in pavements. The departments of transport of a number of states have approved the use of asphalt shingles for constructing roads and pavements. Asphalt shingles have mostly been approved for use in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements. While the use of asphal
Asphalt shingles are used widely in order to create roofs especially for residential applications. It is estimated that asphalt shingles comprise between two thirds and four fifths of all materials used in the United States to create roofs…
It would be of interest to investigate whether the behavior of investors when dividends are announced entails ‘surprise’ or whether their behavior has any relationship with earnings. Some of the researchers who examined a similar subject include Lonie et al.
The paper gives a definition of plastic and discusses the properties or characteristics of plastic that makes it so popular. Next, it discusses the benefits or the pros of using plastic and the consumption in the US. The next section of the paper takes a look at the cons of using plastic – the dangers posed by the use of plastic to the environment, to human health and to other animals. This research paper will attempt to show how the use of plastic will have detrimental effects on the environment and on our health.
Using Antibiotics on Dairy Herds
There is increased concern in tearing of daily herds with antibiotics. However, there are many bacterial strains that continuously affect daily herds that are as well transmitted to humans through consumption of the respective products.
The performance of these systems greatly depends on the design of the hardware and the firmware used as well. The development stages should be monitored carefully. The Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) is usually used to define the interface between the microprocessor and the user (Tanenbaum, p.
Using Assessment and Feedback
Among these barriers include “(a) degree of differentiation required, (b) need to provide advanced learning opportunities beyond grade level, (c) philosophical barriers and antipathy of many teachers toward the gifted learner and their needs, (d) lack of understood services for the gifted population, and (e) lack of service mandates in many states to support services for gifted learners leading to greater neglect” (VanTassel-Baska & Stambaugh, 2005).
Using Simulations in Nursing Education
This paper investigates the importance of simulations in the field of Obstetrics and analyzes different studies carried out to understand the impact of simulation and its benefits. Introduction Simulation is regarded as the cardinal and effective tool in learning any subject or course in the modern education system these days.
Many cities across the world have created green networks, green belts and programs to protect open space and restore connections to nature (Pendall et al., 2002).
Many cities across Europe (especially in Germany, France, Austria,
nities beyond grade level, (c) philosophical barriers and antipathy of many teachers toward the gifted learner and their needs, (d) lack of understood services for the gifted population, and (e) lack of service mandates in many states to support services for gifted learners
te of this explanation, a percentage of the individuals accept that bond has more carbon discharges when its preparation procedure is thought seriously about. In any case, different examinations might be uncovered concerning both cement and Asphalt carbon foot shaped
The biodegradable material are those that degrade both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions found in compost and landfills (Lerner, & Lerner, 2012). The main push behind the market for biodegradable packaging material is the increased
4 pages (1000 words)Research Paper
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