The study has considered data from a large discount brokerage ranging to 35,000 households. The gender wise common stock investments patterns of the studied population were analyzed. Investments from February 1991 to January 1997 were considered for the study. Several models to test and measure over confidence have been reviewed in the paper with reference to the available literature. A thorough review of literature connecting gender and over confidence also has been exhaustively carried out. The research has focused on common stock investments and has excluded data relating to mutual fund investments. Apart from the gender based demography another variable in the study is the marital status of the investors. Thus the study has considered the possible influence of the partner over investment decisions. The data on demography has been sourced from secondary sources as provided by a private agency called Infobase along with data directly provided by the brokerage house. The article is based on the assumption that the psychological theory over the investment confidence that men are more confident could be accepted and taken as a base for the research. The investment performance of men and women were evaluated by calculating gross and net return performance of each household which were included in the study. The paper suggests that men trade 45 percent more than women. However, the risk involved in the aggressive trading habits of men results in a reduction of 2.65 percentage points a year in their trading returns. On the other hand, in the case of women, the reduction in trading returns is 1.72 percentage. The empirical tests of the study strongly suggests that men trade more than women resulting in increased risk and reduced returns in the case of men. This observation is more prominent in the case of investors who are single in comparison with the married. Critique The article addressed a focused objective. The article has tried to analyze the comparative trading confidence between men and women. The author has added a number of literatures which substantiates the relevance of the objective. Extensive literature review over ‘Overconfidence and Trading on Financial Market and, ‘Gender and Overconfidence’ has substantiated the theoretical framework of the study. So as to form the background of the objective, the author has provided literature pertaining to the psychological theories which suggests the hypothesis as put forth by the paper. Two hypothesis put forth by the author are ‘men are more overconfident in finance and investment; and overconfident investors invest aggressively. These hypotheses have been well supported by the literature review. This scientifically backs up the objective of the article and substantiates its thesis. Adding to the strength of the article many authors as cited by the articles have published supporting information with regard to the objective of the reviewed article. As far as the literatures cited are concerned, the author has provided ample background information through referring to a number of literatures. While analyzing the literatures cited by the author, it can be found that appropriate and adequate works has been referred to. The oldest literature cited in the article dates back to 1965. A literature which was published in the year 2000 also has been cited in the arti
Barber B & Odean T (2001) Boys will be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence and Common Stock Investment. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2001 Summary: The article titled ‘Boys will be Boys: Gender, Overconfidence and Common Stock Investment’ critically examines the gender balance in terms of the confidence in investments…
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