Human rights organizations are giving their utmost efforts to have FGM classified as torture. As stated by the legal representative of the women’s refugee project, Nancy Kelly, “Harm that is done to women is seen as a personal, private, or cultural matter. Genital mutilation has not been seen as a type of harm.” Similarly, the Foundation for Women’s Health Research and Development (FORWARD) has portrayed FGM as “a violation of the fundamental human rights of the girl child” and “another form of abuse under the guise of custom and tradition.”
First, FGM is widely viewed to be related to Islam. This is maybe expected, in view of Islam’s obligatory male circumcision and the prevalence of FGM among Muslim societies. Nevertheless, it is imperative to keep in mind that the Quran does not oblige the circumcision of females, that not every Islamic society performs female circumcision, and that a large number of non-Islamic societies do. It has been proposed that ‘religion’ is commonly cited, quite instinctively, as a motivation for practicing FGM. Anthropologist Janice Boddy replied that “the question of what is meant by ‘religion’ remains obscure” and emphasizes that for numerous women “religion is nothing less than their entire way of life; religion and tradition are not merely intertwined, they are one and the same.” Most of the attention and efforts by scholars and advocates has been focused on proving the inadequacy of biblical bases for performing female circumcision. ...
It remains inconclusive when FGM was initially established, but it definitely came before Christianity and Islam. Several contemporary historians argue that female circumcision is a Pharaonic practice, an assumption that is still unconfirmed because early Egyptian writings depict only the circumcision of males.vii FGM is more of a cultural tradition than a religious practice; followers of Islam and Christianity in Egypt’s countryside perform it, whereas their fellow Christians and Muslims in other places refuse to do so. Even in several fully Christian societies, existing evidence indicates, every female endured circumcision. The most widespread type of FGM in Egypt is the total or partial cutting of the labia minora and the clitoris.viii According to the 1995 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS), 97% of women aged 15-49 have went through circumcision.ix The roots of the pervasiveness of FGM in Egypt have been identified in the countrywide DHS and evaluated by ethnographic research. Some of the causes are adherence to religious teachings, increasing the sexual satisfaction of males, protecting female celibacy and virginity, and acquiring social approval.x Third, the need for intervention becomes pronounced as FGM continues to be practiced in some societies, like Egypt. It is not surprising to know that numerous medical, moral, and legal problems emerge from FGM. Among feminists and social advocates, fighting FGM is a major policy objective. FGM has a terrible effect: a lot of girls become infected or bleed excessively which eventually causes death. Survivors can experience detrimental health consequences later in life, especially during marriage and pregnancy.xi However, it is reasonable to believe that traditions which are rooted in the