Since then research had progressed further, but the position had changed little. As of now both neurologists and psychiatrists are trying to manage this problem, but the fact is that there is no identifiable cognitive, metabolic, or neurological marker for this problem, and the diagnosis of ADHD cannot be established with any medical tests (Barkley et al., 2002) Therefore, there is a lack of definition of criteria based on which the professionals can arrive at a diagnosis, and research reports indicate exceedingly differing rates of prevalence across continents. Till date no neuroimaging study has been acceptably standardized that can corroborate a clinical suspicion of ADHD through irrevocable objective means, and the faults in the designs of these studies throw considerable doubt about the feasibility of these means to offer a diagnostic platform for this disorder. Although genetic studies have indicated specific traits for ADHD, all studies have indicated normalcy of brain. In many cases, high incidence of other comorbidities makes a clear-cut diagnosis impossible. Although there has been no accepted specific treatment for ADHD, the widely debated therapeutic agent methylphenidate has been demonstrated to have similar pharmacologic effects on otherwise normal children (Goldstein and Ellison, 2002). Meanwhile, backed up by poor-quality research which has evident publication bias and unethical practices associated with it, the pharmaceutical industry is making huge revenues on many dubious agents with doubtful efficacy. This brings us to the current state of affairs relating to ADHD where many models have been proposed namely genetic model, social and cultural model, medical model, and psychiatric model with no correlation or consensus among them. While research can offer no clarity, it seems that all these models have something to offer to the management of ADHD where some authorities have suggested an integrated model of care (Adler and Chua, 2002). In this assignment the issues concerning this debate will be examined critically from evidence in literature, both seminal and research, to find out which approach would be better to glean success in management of this apparently difficult disease.
Aim and objective of this research
Therefore, there is evident disagreement between authors and their findings regarding the appropriate method of therapy in ADHD. To find out the answer to this debate and to form a practice guideline, there is a need to update the current knowledge in this area. Before going into this array of recent literature, it would be prudent to summarize the therapies available for ADHD.
In the current state of evidence, the best outcome in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is possible through behavioral therapy complemented by medical