Fundamentally, the legislative arm of the government has had two inherent contradictory roles: sustaining the executive and holding them to account between electoral cycles. Even though the legislative role of sustaining the executive is not in doubt, parliamentary oversight seems to be a poorly coordinated task that often lets the executive off the hook. Noteworthy, the nexus between sustaining the government and the task of challenging it and holding it to task opens a Pandora box full of fallacious fantasies – a fallacious inequity that, no doubt, tilts the balance of power towards the executive. Despite the wide adoption of democratic principles of governance across nations, an understanding that has significantly strengthened accountability and transparency mechanisms with regard to promotion of evidence-informed policy processes, legislatures remain comparatively weaker in relation to the executive in terms of raw power necessary to effect immediate leadership challenges. The Executive and Parliament: A Historical Perspective The impact of constitutional structures with regards to their political behavior and performance is central in the study of comparative governments. In particular, understanding the balance power between the executive and the legislature in either the parliamentary or presidential systems has been an area of focus in political research (Mustapic, 2002). Structured governmental control stems much from the historical politics of the mid- and late nineteenth century. Designed at a time when the role of government was limited in scope, the convention of superiority of the executive power over the legislature indeed antedates the modern presidential and parliamentary systems of governments. From inception to the present day politics, there is no pretense that executive autonomy bears much capacity and capability to remedy or compensate for social ills on its own without parliaments’ approval. In his submission on the subject, Bagehot, a British economist and journalist, referred to the convention of executive authority as the ‘buckle’ and the lynch-pin in the Whitehall-Westminster model (Flinders, 2002). Though modest in both size and ambition at the time, it was reasonable for a competent minister to have a personal control over small departmental portfolios in the mid-Victorian state. Strikingly similar, governmental administration in the first quarter of the nineteenth century fell under ministerial responsibility. But even then as is it to date, the powers vested in a ministerial mandate were highly doubtful in terms of usage. Supporting the foregoing, Cobbett (1823) wrote: “Ankle-pinching socks are like ministerial powers; a thing to talk about but for no use; a thing to laugh over; and a mere mockery at those whom real power is vested”. Constitutions the world over are molded around the concept of responsible executive authority for strong and stable leadership. Nothing services this claim better than a two-branch debate that culminated in the creation of the United States Constitution – a model constitutional debate that has since served as a roadmap to numerous constitutions around the world. While the federalists such as Alexander Hamilton rooted for ‘
Are Legislatures Always Weaker Than Executives? Author’s Details: Institutional Affiliation: Are Legislatures Always Weaker Than Executives? Introduction The relationship between the executive authority and parliament is full of intrigues and turns through history, yet the balance of power fully remains a tightly knit affair in the hands of the former…
SME’s have also been commonly defined as business entities that are independently operated and owned (Karami 2007). Based on an organization’s number of employees, The United Kingdom’s DTI uses the following definitions to define what are SME’s, micro firms are defined as firms employing between 0 and 9 employees, small firms are defined as firms employing 0-49 employees, medium firms are defined as firms employing between 50 and 249 employees while large firms are defined as firms employing over 250 employees (APEC, 2005).
This statement expresses the rationality of Man and the objectivity of his choices. In terms of food, the choices we make can significantly impact our health, whether we choose to eat a low calorie diet or a high calorie diet, whether we prefer to eat hygienic home-cooked food over the junk food we eat in restaurants or whether we prefer to eat fresh food as opposed to frozen food.
While romantic love is the most publicised and celebrated type, parental love, sibling love and compassionate love towards larger humanity are all equally powerful and valid. Besides, there is also the love of art that powers creative energies, and the love of knowledge and discovery that drives a scientist toward this goal.
Democracy is defined as a system of government where “the people rule” (Woolf, 2005, p. 4; Mann, 2005, p. 3; Held, 2006, p. 1). In general, democracy in both countries is visible through the giving of their people the right to make decisions through voting and referendums and by developing policies that would protect human rights and freedom as stated in their codified and uncodified constitution.
Her negative aspect evolves out when she has been repeatedly mentioned as something dark, evil, possessed or as a witch. A woman’s appearance as an alluring female has been treated as a taboo phenomena and associated with something of evil sort. It is the subtle politics operating within the premise of the ancient civilization itself that woman has never been treated as the true compatriot or counter-part of the male in the society.
While firms see innovation as a way to beat competitors, nations see the need for an innovative environment for long-term productivity and economic prosperity (The Economic Intelligence Unit, 2007). This implies that innovation is critical for individual companies as well as for national economic growth.
Lay received a salary of $8 million just before the collapse of Enron. Two economists namely Xavier Gabaix and Augustin Landier argue that salaries are justified by the increase in the stock value of corporations.
In short, they argue that in the twenty three years from 1980 to 2003, market capitalization of large companies has increased by a sixth, and hence, salaries have too increased by that fold.
Besides, there is also the love of art that powers creative energies, and the love of knowledge and discovery that drives a scientist toward this goal. Since Alan Watts is a spiritualist and philosopher, his understanding of love would have
From this assertion, one can deduce that organizations are obliged to have a strategic fit that lies between their internal and external environments so as to survive as well as be successful. In connection with this assertion, it is evident
Contrary to popular opinion, stable democracies go beyond regular elections, whether they are fair or not. The fundamental element of a stable democracy is institutional strength and stability that is supported by sensitivity of leaders
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