European Court on Human Rights

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The United Nations has approved the International Bill of Rights and nine human rights core treaties, and organised monitoring bodies to keep track of their implementation by UN member states that have ratified or acceded to these treaties. There are many other universal human rights instruments such as declarations that "have no binding legal effect, but.(wield) undeniable moral force and provide practical guidance to States in their conduct" as well as covenants and protocols that are "legally binding for those States that ratify or accede to them." (OHCHR)


The Human Rights Watch (HRW), a global NGO, noted this weakness in implementation of human rights laws. "The development of norms has not been matched by effective means for their implementation." (Hicks, 2007) Implementation is further blocked by the current thinking that
protection worldwide, and the threat to human rights continues to grow." (Hicks, 2007) Amnesty International also believes that today, "human rights are not only a promise unfulfilled, they are a promise betrayed." Amnesty International was referring specifically to attempts by various States to justify or conceal their violations of the absolute ban on torture, to the tragedy of Darfur, the failure to stop extreme and widespread violence against women, and the failure to pursue the people's economic, political and social rights (as embodied in the modest UN Millenium Development Goals).
In the face of such serious challenges, the Human Rights Watch (HRW) called for UN Member States to rise and assume the role of human rights defenders. ...
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