Although this studies are not a problem with itself, these theories have been generalized and applied to all sort of criminals, defendants, and prisoners without regards to the sexual orientation to the subject (Wikipedia, 2006).
Previous theories that were created with the use of males subjects that were eventually applied to females have been use for research on female criminals. For example, theories of differential association (Sutherland, 1939), neutralization of behavior (Sykes & Matza, 1957), and the theories of containment (Reckless, 1967), control (Hirschi, 1969), and labeling (Cooley, 1902; Mead, 1934) were developed using male samples. Recent research on those theories used female samples (e.g., Browne, 1987; Chesney-Lind, 1989; Chesney-Lind & Sheldon, 1992; Silbert & Pines, 1981; Walker & Browne, 1985, and, most recently, the gendered theory of crime (Steffensmeier & Allan, 1995, 1996) incorporated the earlier male sample theories and these more recent theories. The goal was to understanding differences in crime patterns for females and males (cited by Collins et al, 2001).
Voigt et al, in their recent book called Criminology and Justice, also pointed out some incompleteness of criminology texts suggesting that 'criminology is nothing more than specialised theories of male delinquency and crime' (1994: 238-249, cited by Kelta Web Concepts, 2003 ...