Ecological systems theory
The ecology of human development theory as propounded by Bronfenbrenner has
defined as the ” mutual accommodation between an active, growing human being and the
changing properties of the immediate settings in which the developing individual person
lives”. In accordance with this theory, the child is envisaged as developing within a
complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment
surrounding the child. In Ghana, this has been complicated by HIV/AIDS,children are
experiencing death pf parents at an early age and are taken care of by other foster
Development and emotional functioning of children occurs in a context of relationships
(Bronfenbrenner 1979,Osofsky 2004). Children depend on their caretakers as sources of
protection and safety.
Aims and research questions:
The aims of our research and the questions that we want to answer through the
research are as follows:
• Are NGOs actually helping children to progress in any way?
• In what ways are children being helped?
• What are the aspects of life of the children that are affected by the NGOs?
• To prove that NGOs are needed not only for orphan kids but also for kids who have parents taking care of them.
• To prove NGO workers and volunteers are sometimes more effective in child welfare than the Government or police.
Child welfare is an important issue in any country. In Ghana, this responsibility is
shouldered by the nuclear or extended family of a child. Nuclear family include the
parents, while Extended family includes, the grandparents, uncle, aunty, or any other
relative. However, poverty, HIV, child abuse and child labour is affecting families, and
eventually affecting the children. Our concern is the role that is played by the
international and local N.G.Os in these children's life.
While the two common types of research methods are the Qualitative and Quantitative
research methods, I would be using the mixed method procedure that is a mix of both
qualitative and quantitative research methods. It is a relatively new research approach in
the social and human sciences. It is unique because it included the advantages of both the
qualitative and quantitative methods. While quantitative methods asks how many, and
qualitative asks what and how, mixed methods asks why. The mixed method research has
both thematic and numerous One of its strength is also that its validity and reliability
standards. It has both closed ended measures and open observations.
The study used would be Qualitative methods of data collection and data analysis ,
which will be followed by quantitative methods of data collection and analysis. The data
collection for qualitative methods were
The aim of the interview is to find out the participant's
perception, hence their views should be unbiased.
Interviews can also be a group interviews.
The answers should preferably not be, YES or NO, as
that makes details unachievable.
The researcher should choose an environment that
makes the participants comfortable.
The researcher should monitor observation and record
personal bias of the participant.
The researcher himself should be very neutral and not have
any prejudice while observing participant.
The focus group session is, indeed, an interview (Patton,
1990) not a discussion group, problem-solving session, or
Comprises of both