Others include prominent businessmen and politicians. Apart from their careers and appearances in events, celebrities act as spokesmen for different brands in their promotion (Kambitsis et al. 2002, p. 160). This paper will analyze the effect of celebrity (athlete) endorsements in sportswear marketing on the consumer's perception of the product and overall purchasing decision. “A celebrity endorser is a person who is known by the public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class he or she is endorsing” (Friedman & Friedman 1979, p. 63). This is one of the forms of celebrities that are use by companies in order to promote their products. The reason for use of celebrities is engrained in the influence that they command be it on a national or international stage. Sportsmen and women in particular have been utilized for promotion of a wide range of products most of which include sportswear and energy drinks. Athletes compared to ordinary people have a higher chance of commanding attention. Solomon (2002, p. 50) asserts that the perception that consumers get from brands being endorsed by celebrities is that they are interesting. This is also accompanied by a feeling of connection and positivity with the brands. There is a guarantee that the use of celebrities in promotional ventures will elicit a positive attitude towards the brands and in turn will affect the intentions to purchase. The main reason why people advertise is to persuade customers to buy their products. The whole purpose is pegged on the capability of the producers to alter the attitudes of the consumers. As persuasion is the pillar of this process, credibility in advertisements must be projected for the brand to receive the necessary attention. Athletes especially project trustworthiness, persuasiveness, expertise and objectiveness when used in advertisements (Till & Shimp 1998, p. 72). The customers are also attracted to the brands due to the attractiveness of the personality who is its spokesperson. The attractiveness is classified according to the person?s physical appearance, the relation that can be drawn with the consumer, likeability and the personality. Although the use of athletes is reliant on their skills, some of them are utilized because of their physical appearance that is not so much on the physical attractiveness but on the physique. Ohanian (1991, p. 52) asserts that the use of attractive celebrities as spokespeople is more effective than the use of others who are not as attractive. A halo effect is assumed where the excellence of a person in one direction is associated with excellence in another. An example is that the physical attractiveness of a person being related to coolness or happiness. There is an interaction between the brand and the spokesperson endorsing it. Friedman and Friedman (1979, p. 60) assert that “a famous relative to a ‘normal’ spokesperson is more effective for products high in psychological or social risk, involving such elements as good taste, self-image, and opinion of others.” There are numerous studies that have been done with the aim of examining the effectiveness that celebrities have as brand spokespeople. Martin (1996, p. 32) conducted such a study that there are those endorsements that performed exemplarily whereas others miserably failed. Michael Jordan’
Athletes and their Impacts on Endorsement of Sportswear Name: Course name: Course instructor: Date: Athletes and their Impacts on Endorsement of Sportswear People who enjoy recognition by a large share of others are regarded as celebrities. There are many parameters that go into the decision of whether a person is deserving of the celebrity status…
Celebrity Endorsement Exploring the contribution of celebrity endorsement to achieving marketing communications objectives in the retail clothing industry: a case study on Topshop.
The purpose of the study being to answer the question whether celebrity endorsements act as an antecedent of brand-brand building and accept impact over the purchasing behaviour of customer in case of fashion apparel, it becomes necessary that the literature review aims at developing a broad understanding of the theoretical basis of integrated marketing communications be built up first; the reason being celebrity endorsement is a constituent of the marketing mix.
(Jeukendrup et al. 2000). In a study conducted by White et al. 1984 the measured the physiological impact of 24 hours cycling race on a highly trained cycling athlete (23 years old, weighting 73 kilograms and 195 centimeters tall). The cyclists covered 694 kilometers at an average speed of 28.9 kilometers/h with average oxygen consumption of 55 percents of the VO2 max.
‘Events’, in this context can be termed as any social or corporate happenings organised in a planned and structured manner. Hence, it is quite apparent that events have to be systematically managed to be organised efficiently that in turn can provide with utmost satisfaction to the participants in terms of investors, visitors and other stakeholders (Getz, 2008).
This paper is a literature review of how celebrity’s endorsement affects consumer perception on various products. It reflects how their endorsement results to overall purchasing decisions made by consumers towards products. The analysis of this paper considers an athlete as the celebrity and how they are vital to sportswear marketing.
In addition, most of the sports fans who do not manage to attend these games watch them on television. It is worth noting that Olympics have led to a significant rise of related businesses that improve the standard of living of those involved in these businesses in host countries.
3 2.2 Data related to climate change parameters on water networks. 6 2.3 Effect of Climate Change on the Future of Water Availability and water demand. 8 2.4 Impacts of climate Change and hydraulic Impact on water networks Pipes Material (DI, PVC, HDPE...) 10 2.5 Recommendation of a possible solution to reduce the impacts of climate change on water networks.
Idea of “green hotel” In order to compete internationally implementation of the information and telecommunication technologies (ICT) has become one of the indispensible ways. A large number of hotels are seen to adopt the ICT in major areas of operations like relationship management, customer service, marketing, communication and other areas of operations (DiPietro and Wang, 2010).
Although, the product itself has an importance but the consumer behaviour can be affected by various psychological and environmental factors (Hitt, Hoskisson and Ireland, 2008). The consumer development
The market players have, therefore, adopted strategic marketing techniques through adoption of celebrity endorsement approach in order to create brand equity in the market. The role of the celebrity endorsement in the integrated marketing communication plan has been
7 pages (1750 words)Literature review
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