However, globalization has not diminished social and cultural differences across markets which suggest that marketing communication strategy needs to address these differences when communicating across cultures. Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture are the most widely applied theory in understanding national and international markets. This paper argues that the concepts of self, personality and identity differ across culture which in turn influences advertising strategy across different markets. However, advertising strategy cannot solely be based on Hofstede’s dimensions of culture. Other factors and variables could also influence the advertising appeals. It is essential to understand how advertising works in different cultures and to understand this, the advertising value has to be perceived in the right manner. Consumers and Cultural dimensions Culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another (Hofstede, 1990). National culture differentiates one nation from another but within the national culture several subcultures may exist. Consumers differ not only in their lifestyle, beliefs, attitudes and buying habits and at the root of all these, is the difference in culture. Cultural values actually represent the core beliefs of the society. It also includes education, religion and the physical environment. Attitudes develop over time and can change with age and education. In personal communication verbal and body language both can difference across cultures. Understanding cultural differences is a prerequisite for international advertising as a culture’s values are reflected in its advertising (Aillaud & Hahnel, 2006; Chang et al, 2009; Alozie, 2010). Culture and advertising Culture and advertising are inherently related and beliefs towards advertising differ across cultures (Liu et al, 2011). Advertising represents a special type of mass media discourse where verbal and non-verbal messages are unified into a single entity (Ustinova, 2008). Advertising merges the voices of authority and intimacy as they are constrained by the need to fulfill the wishes of their clients. Advertising is closely related to culture and must be adapted to meet the consumer’s needs. Tastes and desires may have become homogenous; values and needs have not become universal (Cemalovic, 2009). Cultural differences continue to exist in language, customs, and habits which heighten the importance of localizing the marketing strategy. Cultural values are an integral part of the consumer’s self. Therefore, for advertisements to be effective, they should be centered on the customer. Mental and social processes also make a difference in how advertisements are perceived (Mooij & Hofstede, 2010). Mental processes are internal – how people learn, perceive and process messages. Social processes include motivation and emotions. Both these processes affect mass communication and interpersonal communication which in turn impact the advertising appeals and advertising style. Advertising appeal and culture While designing advertisements the consumers must be focused upon. Culture influences various elements of consumer behavior and each of these have to be considered by the marketers when designing advertisements. Consumers differ in how they process information and perceive the message. Advertising appeals are specific approaches that marketers use to communicate
Introduction Cultures are deep-seated; cultures are pervasive. Culture drives how people communicate and what they communicate. As international marketing communication has been of increasing interest, marketers have also developed interest in advertising across markets and cultures…
Companies save a lot by not up-selling at the opportune moments during in-bound calling since out-bound calling these days is considered to be invasive and eventually disastrous to the customer association. There is a benefit that arises from a quality outsourced customer care and that is the capacity to produce relatively higher retention rates.
Mulberry depicts a British lifestyle brand that produces pilferer bags made of leather, binocular bags and dispatch bags. It provides products of a variety of range including women’s wear, menswear and footwear. The company has got it name in the London Stock Exchange by the name of MUL.
It is a strategy that applies techniques in use in the home country to other countries abroad. International marketing ensures diversification of markets, market growth and economies of scale for companies that involve themselves in this kind of marketing.
signment paper is based on international marketing. The objective of the assignment is to bring to light the role of Information Technology in international marketing; discuss the scope of information systems in international marketing activities; emphasise how the adoption and integration of IT has revolutionised the international marketing environment for marketing managers and businesses.
At the heart of international strategy lies selection of foreign market and the entry models which are appropriate for the desired market (Ellis, 2010, p.450). A comprehensive and exhaustive analysis of the market plus the entry mechanisms are essential for any firms planning to venture into foreign market if the corporation would want to remain in operation and break-even.
Whatever the product or service offered by the manufacturer or service provider can reach the consumers only through effective marketing techniques.
Globalization has opened the doors widely open for business community as they can market
It has been found that almost 48% of eBay’s total profit comes from the international business. eBay has always developed a proper plan before entering into any international market. In 2006 the company decided to enter in China through joint venture or
There are various reasons for business selling beyond its domestic borders. The geographical size of the country determines the size of the market. After the domestic market gets saturated, a businessman has to think beyond the national borders. At times
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