Literature review increases in immigration result in increased ethnic entrepreneurial activity.

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Throughout the comparatively short history of ethnic business studies, attempts to make sense of immigrant-origin enterprise have been characterised by an agency-versus-structure battle between those emphasising internal communal resources as a unique business advantage and those who see the external political-economic context as the ultimate shaper of ethnic entrepreneurial outcomes.


Rather, enterprise should also be seen as grounded in mainstream resources, primarily market conditions which set the outer parameters on how much and what kind of ethnic enterprise can exist, which are themselves constrained by politico-legal regulatory structures ranging from national immigration and citizenship practices to local planning policy. The legal status of immigrant minorities is in itself a key determinant of whether self-employment is viable or even possible as a career choice. Similarly, the nature of the national economic regulatory regime can be decisive in creating or blocking market space, with ethnic entrepreneurs far more numerous in the relatively deregulated Anglo-Saxon economies (Collins et al., 1995; Light and Rosenstein, 1995; Razin and Langlois, 1996; Ram and Jones, 1998; Barrett et al., 2001) than in most mainland European states.
Although the UK now has an extensive literature relating to its immigrant-origin (ethnic minority) businesses, there has been little time for the application of the mixed embeddedness perspective. ...
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