According to Wiley (2009), only 56.3% of African American respondents identified brain as the organ where stroke occurs. Among stroke symptoms, hemiparesis, speech disturbance, headache and blurred vision were the best recognized. Primary risk factors for stroke were correctly identified and included hypertension, family history of stroke, obesity, smoking and cocaine abuse. From the perspective on study results, Wiley et al (2009) found significant deficiencies in stroke literacy among African American study sample. Because of poor stroke literacy in Wiley's et al study (2009), participants were not likely to activate EMS. Consequently, poor literacy on stroke symptoms among African American population jeopardizes the effectiveness of early prevention therapy.
King et al (2001) in their study aimed to determine whether African American individuals suffered from stroke (n=103) presented for treatment within the first 3 hours, a critical period needed for effective treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Through Stroke Survey Tool, King et al (2001) determined that an average time needed for African American victims to present for treatment constituted 24.68 hours.