The word agency in this context refers that 'agency is directly tied to social structures' in so far as they interact and produce society together. Obviously, Agents have complete knowledge of their society and this mutual information that therein produces structures. The everyday ordinary life of an agent leads is simply a part of reproduction in society. The important thing is here that Levine theory primary refers "Ontologiclal" security in the trust.
In contrast, Agency, apart from reproduction of society can also lead to the transformation of society. According to Levine a good way to explain this concept is "reflexive monitoring of actions". Reflexive monitoring looks at the skill to look at actions to estimate their effectiveness in achieving their aims. However, if agents can replicate structure through action, they can also transform it.
However, according to Levine "in terms of identity formation and maintenance, two key issues pertain to (a) the relevance of the concepts of structure and agency for understanding identity, and (b) the extent to which identity is conceptualized as having an "inner" versus "outer" origin. The first issue involves assumptions regarding individual causality, or personal responsibility; the sociological equivalent of which lies in the notions of reflexivity and agency. It is quite true that this issue has long been ignored in sociology, but as noted, the issue is currently being discussed by late modernists in terms of the structure-agency debate (i.e., how much individuals exercise control independent of social structure versus how much social structure determines individual behavior". (Levine, 2002, pg, 54+)
Structural Influence on Identity
(A) Gender Base Structural Influence on Identity
The benefits of receiving ample parental support and, conversely, the costs of receiving poor parental support during childhood may be the most powerful within "same-sex parent-child dyads". The important point is to note here is that the daughter-mother relationship is central in most women's lives. Certianly, this relationship between mother and daughter is a key influence in the identity formation and the long-term psychosocial adjustment of daughter. Similarly, the son-father relationship has significant influence on the development psychosocial, morality, behaviour and so on. Furthermore, the relationship between father and son influences everything in a man's life, in what he sees himself and in what way he sees all other people. Thus, the amount of support a child receives within this same-sex dyad would be a important determinant of psychosocial and moral values development an individual's life course.
"When taken together, this review suggests that although receiving early parental support may be an important predictor of mental and physical health outcomes in later life, the impact of early parental support can be fully appreciated only by identifying the social structural factors that are most closely associated with receiving poor support in early life and understanding how associations between levels of support received during childhood. However, moral and behavior status vary according to following factors.
1. Does the amount of early parental support reported vary by gender of the parent, gender of the child, or racial or socioeconomic status
2. Is the moral of women and men differentially