1. & 2. The role of Personnel Management as developed over a period of time starting from the late 19th century which matured somewhere in the 1970s can be broadly classified under the following heads:
The personnel management concept was based on the fundamental premise that if workers were to be managed they had to be constantly supervised.
The other roles played by the department was to recruit manpower (ensure sufficient numbers of people are available for production,) Training the staff to improve productivity and, ensuring the safety and health of the employees.
Still the preliminary focus was to ensure the implementation of Scientific Management techniques and the major work that used to get done routinely was - time-motion studies, fatigue studies, job analysis, developing job specifications, designing compensation program and occasional welfare programs. Typical welfare programs addressed the "other" needs of the employees like wash rooms, vacation, lunchrooms, housing, hygiene etc.
3. The initial stage of personnel management was the creation of Welfare Officers, predominantly women, as a reaction towards the hazardous conditions prevalent in the production floors at that time (it is pertinent to re-collect the economies used to revolve around manufacturing and mining in those days,) which was a heavily paternalistic role of the employers towards the women employees.