Normally, people learn their first language through the natural inputs of hearing, seeing and observations in their daily life experiences. It was only after the emergence of psychology as a branch of science that interest on the evolution of methods based on the research findings of how human acquire learning and how they respond to different modes of teaching took a paradigm shift. And as part of a changing world system, the methods have also evolved to become more effective over the years. (Anthony, E.M. 1963).
Most of us learn to speak at least two languages. Our first language (L1) is known as our native language, and is acquired from our childhood years. The Second Language (L2), also known as foreign language, is acquired as taught in schools, or by living in a state where another language is spoken. Acquiring the first language in most situations is as effortless as learning normal routines. We learn it because we are exposed to it most of the time. On the other hand, learning another new language calls for greater effort and dedication, and persistent application of the trial and error methodology. The emphasis on this type of language teaching is on how an individual can successfully grasp a second language over a given period of time. It is suitable for the classroom as well as the individual student, because every student who wants to learn a new language has different learning needs, and the instructor has to choose the right method to be used in teaching the classroom which can be easily understood by everyone and does not alienate any student in the class. (JoAnn (Jodi) Crandall, p.3).
3. Approach, Design and Procedure
Richards and Rodgers developed a three levels framework to help instructors effectively teach second language. The three levels: Approach, Design, and Procedure, are interrelated to each other as the content of each level directly affects the contents of the other levels. Richards and Rodgers implied that in order to select the best method, we should look at each method as a separate series of theories and applications, and that the methods can be evaluated by comparing and coordinating the three interrelated levels. Now let us define the three levels first. (Richards, J. and T. Rodgers. 2001).
No methods exist alone unsupported by theoretical views, and that is why methods and theories must be viewed together. The methods that are to be utilized for the purpose of language grasp have their orientation in well tested and defined theories. The system or method used is first split into units of components comprising the whole. These units are then employed as components of the language, viz. grammar, vocabulary,