As serious, lifelong conditions, these disorders have generated important challenges to the systems that relate to the individuals with disabilities including educational, vocational, medical, and psychiatric systems.
Diagnosis: The paired processes of diagnosis and classification of these developmental disorders characterized by disability in many spheres of function are fundamental to intervention. The diagnostic process includes all of the activities in which a clinician engages in trying to understand the nature of an individual's difficulty. The result of this process is often a narrative account, a portrait of the individual's past, the current problems, and the ways in which these problems can be related to each other and to possible underlying causes. In the course of diagnostic process, the clinician will learn about the patient's history, observe the patient, engage in specialized investigations, and use laboratory and other methods for helping define the patient's problems and their causes. The clinician will integrate the findings from these activities based on specialized scientific knowledge. Often more than one clinician may be involved in the diagnostic process; then, the final clinical diagnostic formulation will integrate the pooled information into a coherent and consensual narrative that reflects the varied information. One component of the diagnostic process is the assignment of the patient's difficulties, signs, symptoms, pains, troubles, worries, dysfunctions, and abnormal tests to a specific class or category of illness or disorder. The newer methods of classification of developmental, psychiatric, behavioural, and mental disorders respect the distinction between diagnosing an individual and classifying his or her problems (CDC, 2004).
Early Intervention Priorities: For early intervention priorities, it is to be remembered that there is no obvious physical marker for most of the conditions. The problems that result from neurobehavioural disabilities often get directed at the caregiver. These disabilities are harder to accept since these children do not ask for help in the usual lovable way. Unless one validates the problems as true disabilities, one will dismiss the problems, and instead, blame the person as being uncontrollable. The starting point for the intervention is an atypical child and his or her dysfunctions. With such disabilities, most of these children fail to learn. The early intervention priorities, therefore, deploy strategies that hammer away at the area of deficit and strategies that effectively circumvent it. In dyslexia, for example, Orton-Gillingham, a structured, multisensory approach, stressing phonics grounded on language-based learning processes, is the hammer-away approach, whereas using books on tape is the circumvent approach. Both types of interventions have their essential and legitimate uses. There are many different goals for educating the young children with developmental disabilities. At the root of these goals are societal desires and expectations about the benefits of education of all children and assumptions about what is important and what is possible to teach children with these disorders. Educational and interventional goals for these individuals often need to address language, social, and adaptive goals that are not part of standard curricula. Both academic and nonacademic goals must be considered against the background of