This will help the readers to understand each and every bit of the paper in a well manner. So, here I am explaining some key and practical terms including PPBE, Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution in the context of the main theme of the research paper.
Basically, PPBE refers to Planning. Programming, Budgeting and Execution process that involves the working of the defense department. This process tells us that how department of defense (DOD) allocates their resources. It further highlights the process that how department of defense in collaboration with their contractors work together in managing their tasks within fiscal budget. Moreover, how they follow the defense strategies, goals and policies of the defense department.
OSD and Joint Staff are the two main acting participants of the planning phase. They jointly articulate military strategy and national defense policies. Military strategy also known as SPG, Strategic Planning Guidance leads into EPP, Enhanced Planning Process. In EPP, several priorities of military budget are set for further program developments including force modernization, sustainability and readiness. Moreover, it also supports business process and overall infrastructure of the military. Finally, the result of EPP is written up and forwarded to JPG, Joint Programming Guidance.
So, planning is a process that includes the definition and assessment of all the alternatives strategies plus the critical analysis of changing trends and conditions, technology and threat. Moreover, it also includes the economic assessments with efforts to recognize change and the long term goals and implications of the current choices. Finally, we can say that it is a process of determining requirements and needs.
In the beginning of this phase, each agency and DOD department writes a POM, Program Objective Memorandum. Each POM describes the proposed budget for manpower, forces and funding. It is a