The qualitative research design used focus groups guided by Leininger’s theory of culture care diversity and universality. The setting for the study covered three different regions of a southeastern state in the United States. The participants included fifteen self-identified African American women who had recently breastfed; they were recruited by lactation consultants and by word of mouth. The research study on three focus groups was undertaken with initial guiding questions. New ideas that emerged were thoroughly investigated in the group, and included as a guiding question for the next group.
The categories identified from the data included reasons to start and stop breastfeeding, advice about breastfeeding whether useful or not useful, and cultural issues pertaining to breastfeeding distinctive to African Americans. The three main themes identified for all categories were “perceived lack of information about benefits and management of breastfeeding, difficulties breastfeeding in public, and lack of a supporting system for continued breastfeeding” (Lewallen & Street, 2010, p.667). The authors concluded that women should be taught early in their pregnancies about the benefits of breastfeeding. They should also be provided with continued support and teaching once breastfeeding is established. Further, it was considered
The socio-cultural factors that influence care and caregiving vary in different places, with both beneficial and harmful effects on the caregivers. The cultural and social structural factors that impact caregivers of people living with HIV/ AIDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia were found to be religious beliefs, economic issues, education, and social stigma and discrimination. Leininger’s culture care diversity and universality theory helps provide caregiving by family in a culturally congruent manner to those requiring nursing assistance (Aga et al, 2009b).
A second research study