The normal fear response to threatening stimuli comprises several components, including defensive behaviors, autonomic reflexes, arousal and alertness, corticosteroid secretion and negative emotions. In anxiety states, these reactions occur in an anticipatory manner, independent…
ve disorder is an anxiety disorder, a compulsive ritualistic behavior driven by irrational anxiety such as fear of contamination, thereby repeated washing of hands and cleaning or articles is performed by the patient. The treatment of such disorders generally involves an amalgamation of psychological approaches as well as drug treatment (Katzang, 2009; Kaushik, 2011).
OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) is characterized by repetitive anxiety- provoking thoughts (obsession) or repetitive behaviors aimed at reducing anxiety (compulsions). If such thoughts or actions are prevented or interrupted, the patient becomes anxious. It is chronic, prevalent as well as disabling condition that persists throughout life, hampers normal life of an individual and those who are associated with the OCD patient (Katzang, 2009; Kaushik, 2011).
The disease is a chronic condition and no absolute reason could be formulated till date. Noteworthy contribution of studies involving OCD highlight the perception of the phenomenology and pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) prevalent both in children as well as adults, affecting 1-3% of the population (Torres et al, 2006).
Epidemiological understanding about OCD suggests that OCD has emerged as the fourth most common mental disorder across the world irrespective of cultural differences. Considering the condition to be of paramount significance, World Health Organization (WHO, 2001) has graded OCD as one of the most debilitating disorders. An estimation carried out in 2000, enumerated OCD amongst the top 20 causes of illness related disability of individuals belonging to the age between 15 years and 44 years. In most of the cases, symptoms onset around the age of 10 years, prepuberty onset is observed in boys while in girls onset of symptoms usually occur during adolescence phase (Tukel et al, 2006).
OCD patient displays significant distress that results in impaired psychosocial performances. Obsessions are recurring, ...
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In order to be diagnosed with OCD, an individual must present with recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions that are severe enough to cause marked impairment in everyday functioning. Obsessions are defined as persistent ideas, thoughts, impulses, or images that are perceived as intrusive or unwarranted, and lead to marked anxiety or distress.
These repetitive behaviors or recurring impulsive tendencies are called compulsions, which without cause come as a natural reflex to the afflicted individual. Most obsessive thoughts are centered on things or subjects that a person is not at ease with. An example is an individual who thinks that her house is full of dirt and dust that will trigger her allergies despite the true fact that the house in question is spotless.
In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) (APA, 2000), OCD is classified as an anxiety disorder. The condition is characterized by obsessive thoughts that are distressing and intrusive, and involve clinically significant repetitive compulsive actions.
There are a myriad of treatments for OCD including behavioral therapy pharmacological therapy, group therapy, and cognitive therapy. Each therapy differs in terms of its approach and its effectiveness. Some patients may have to try several therapies before finding the one that will work for them so that they will either be able to manage their symptoms or overcome them completely.
An ideal example is an individual who has immense fear of germs. Such a person will be afraid of opening doors or of shaking people’s hands. It is an ordinary thing for people to check and make sure that door locks have been securely locked, but when a person does this too many times than he or she should, then this might be symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder.
The thoughts and actions are uncontrollable even when the individual is aware of them. OCD is one of the common mental disorders with about two percent of the United States of America adults suffering from the disorder. It affects people of all ages including children and
In most of the time, the affected individuals will be uneasy (Cunningham, 2013). This reaction deems to reduce the anxiety that is linked to the disorder. Apparently, an obsession is stated as an unpleasant thought that a person
In addition to them, there are also secondary symptoms, such as phobias, depression, sleep disturbances, sexual disturbances, anger, tic disorders etc. For today, specialists have not differentiated the certain causes of OCD; however, the available data