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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia - Research Paper Example

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If the overproliferation of immature leukocyte is evident, it is called acute leukemia, whereas well differentiated leukocytes are found in chronic leukemia (Dorantes-Acosta et al., 2009). Acute Lymphoblastic…
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
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Acute lymphoblastic leukemia

The basic mechanism for abnormal proliferation of any cell remains the same. The cell cycle consists of different phases with various check points to control abnormal division. The most important are the transition from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase. Division of cell only takes place after receiving instructions from some external stimulation (Cipoloti et al., 2003). There are various mechanisms by which cells are regulated for division. This includes stimulation from special molecules called mitogenic substances, inhibition by various anti-proliferative cytokines and regulation by adjacent cells. Most of the cancer cells including those involved in ALL, abandon these regulatory mechanisms. Various studies including one by Cipoloti et al. tried to isolate mutations in those tumor suppressor genes that are responsible for keeping a check during cellular division. An example is the inactivation of p15 gene in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. P15 and other related genes are responsible for producing cyclic inhibitors that bind to CD 4 and 6. This binding triggers various complex events that include phosphorylation of Rb protein which, in turn, inhibits cell cycle progression (Cipoloti et al., 2003). Therefore, deletion of this important tumor suppressor gene can lead to abnormal proliferation of leukocytes and, thus, constitute a major factor in the development of acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Another study (Lin et al., 2012) demonstrated mutation in one of the signaling pathways and its role in development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Chinese patients. According to the report, Notch 1 is a signaling pathway crucial for the development of T-cells and its mutation is found commonly in patients with ALL. To verify the extent of this abnormal expression, real time PCR was used to detect the gene and its mutation. It was evident in the results that most ... Read More
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