Name Professor: Course: Date: Dysrhythmia Physiology of cardiac functioning The circulatory system consists of the heart and the blood vessel. The function is to transport oxygen and nutrients to body cells and carry away metabolic byproducts. The cardiac functioning refers to the circulatory system operation…
Oxygenated blood from the lungs is pumped to the body cells, the blood returns to the heart devoid of oxygen and is pumped to the lungs for oxygenation. The process repeats itself several times without ever halting (Balachander & Rajagopal, 2011). Basic normal EKG waveform morphology The electrocardiogram (EKG) works as a voltmeter, using twelve leads (electrodes) placed on specific areas of the body. It basically records the electrical activity of the heart at the body surfaces. Ordinarily, the SA node depolarizes spontaneously, initiating an action impulse which swiftly propagates through the atria, leading to atria contraction, then proceeds to the AV node before getting to the Purkinje system to the ventricles (Stein, 2012). This leads to the ventricular contraction. The EKG consists of waves and complexes hence the wave form morphology. In a normal sinus rhythm, the waves and complexes include the P wave, PR segment, PR Interval, T wave, QRS Complex, QT Interval and the ST Segment. The waves and complexes work in a complex system that consequently measure electrical activity of the heart. At the onset is the P wave that lasts not more than 0.12 seconds, usually occasioned by the atria’s depolarization. The nature of the P wave is smooth and positive (Stein, 2012). The PR interval then picks and ends at the QRS complex which signifies the onset of ventricular depolarization. Connected to the PR interval is the PR segment which is the EKG wave portion that corresponds to the period between the atria depolarization conclusion to the onset of the ventricular depolarization. At this time the impulse in the heart travels from the AV node through the conducting tissue towards the ventricles. The segment is isoelectric in nature. During ventricular depolarization, the ventricles undergo depolarization and this is represented in the waveform by the QRS complex. It ordinarily ranges between 0.04 seconds to 0.12 seconds and is measured from the onset of the first deflection to the conclusion of the last deflection. Another isoelectric segment occurs typically referred to as the ST segment. It represents ventricular muscle contraction time before any depolarization takes place. Isoelectric segments represents durations in which no electric activities occur. The period between the onset of the QRS segment and the end of the T wave is represented in the waveform by the QT interval. This represents the period of ventricular depolarization up to the ventricular depolarization. The T wave essentially represents ventricular repolarization. The EKG thus represents the entire electric activity of the heart through the waveform morphology (Stein, 2012). Types of dysrhythmia Dysrhythmia is a condition of the heart that causes variation in the regular beat of the heart. Ordinarily it manifests in slow heart beat, skipping a heart beat or sudden changes in heart beat. The common types of dysrhythmia include: Bradycardia which refers to a heart beat fewer than sixty beats per minute in an adult. Tachycardia, a condition in which the heart beats more than one hundred times per minute in an adult. Sick sinus syndrome, the heart rate slows down, at times the rates varying between slow and fast. Atrial flutter, a condition in which the heart beats very fast at around three hundred and fifty beats per minute, but usually steady (Day, 2012). Features and treatment The conditions described in the previous paragraph best serve ...
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