The paper “Expectancy theory in nursing” will discuss expectancy theory, which indicates that an individual behave in a certain way due to their motivation to select certain behaviors over others due to their expectations of the desired behaviors…
There are three components of expectancy theory, which are expectancy, valence, and instrumentality.
In expectancy, the belief is that the efforts of an individual’s determine their attainment of desired performance and goals. To do so, the individuals have to develop their self-efficacy by assessing whether they have the required skills and knowledge to achieve the desired goals. Goals difficulty occurs when the set goals are set too high or the achievement of the performance expectations are set too hard. This leads to low expectancy especially when the desired results of an individual are un-attainable according to the beliefs of the individual. An individual may also get the perceived control where they believe that there is some degree of control over their expected outcome. If such individuals believe that the outcome is beyond their perceived outcomes, then their ability to influence is low leading to low motivation.
In instrumentality, individuals believe that they will receive a reward if they meet the performance expectations set. This may be in form of a promotion, salary increment, or recognition. Valence, on the other hand, is the individuals’ beliefs in the reward of certain outcome. It is based on their goals, motivational factors, and values. Expectancy theory is related to nursing management in that it allows the nurse managers to ensure that their employees are well motivated to maximize on their potential. It ensures that the nurse managers come up with policies to ensure that each successful outcome of the nurses’ performance is rewarded. They ensure that the efforts made by all the nurses will result into attainment of desired goals and objectives (Yoder-Wise, 2014). To do so, the nurses have to have the required belief in their ability to achieve the set goals and ensure that the goals set are not too high for the nurse to achieve.
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The researcher states that that in order to enable the nurses to optimize on their skills, nurses should be made to undertake a range of courses related to the environment, since the environment in which an individual works fundamentally affects the individual’s ability to take the best out of him/herself.
Vansteenkiste, Lens, Witte, and Feather (2005) in their journal wrote that expectancy value theory is a cognitive-motivational theory that relates to an individual’s level or strength of motivation. This is because a person strives to attain a certain goal with the expectations to attain the desired goal and the incentive value or valence of that goal (e.g.
This theory can help understand personal space violations in the first episode of The Nanny (1993). During this time, Fran Fine (Fran Drescher) is applying as a nanny for Maxwell Sheffield (Charles Shaughnessy). The scene analyzed is the one where Maxwell interviews her in the living room, as he reads her resume.
In her works, Burgoon denotes personal space as ‘ a space that is invisible with variable volume, surrounding an individual in a bid to give an individual his or her preferred distance from others’. In addition, Burgoon argues that the shape and size of our personal space is dependent on both cultural customs and individual choices.
In the area of communication, theories can be used to define fabric of space, time and relationship between individuals. Communication surrounds people every time and is interlaced into the area of shared awareness. Communication based theories are regarded as a set of methodical and knowledgeable aspects that determine about how communication works.
A thorough understanding of the impact our mannerisms, proximity, style, and body language has on the observer can greatly aid the communicator in their effort to provide a clear and unambiguous message. Previous attempts at quantifying these messages have often found themselves grounded in a particular culture and measured from that culture's perspective, which limits the accuracy of the anticipated outcome of a cross-culture encounter.
The expectancy theory assumes that there is an explanation for one’s behavior to be motivated to do something.
Psychologist Victor Vroom has advanced and explained the theory of expectancy theory when he asserted that a
Expectancy is the belief that efforts contribute to improved performance. The theory is observed in the belief that hard work leads to greater success (Redmond 1). Many factors influence expectancy. Firstly, availability
The author states that inn daily life, people predict certain behaviors in the process of interacting and the violation of the prediction is seen as negative or positive. This may depend on the relationship between people. In many cases, people would always predict what others think as per their behaviors.
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