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Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
Pages 4 (1004 words)
Leukemia is a malignant disease that affects the hematopoietic system. If the overproliferation of immature leukocyte is evident, it is called acute leukemia, whereas well differentiated leukocytes are found in chronic leukemia …
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia, or ALL, is the most common malignant carcinoma in pediatric patients (Cipoloti et al., 2003). It is characterized by abnormal proliferation of leukemic blasts that are poorly differentiated, leading to inadequate hematopoiesis (Siddique et al., 2011). Pathogenesis There are several studies that dissect the underlying cellular events responsible for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The basic mechanism for abnormal proliferation of any cell remains the same. The cell cycle consists of different phases with various check points to control abnormal division. The most important are the transition from G1 to S phase and G2 to M phase. Division of cell only takes place after receiving instructions from some external stimulation (Cipoloti et al., 2003). There are various mechanisms by which cells are regulated for division. This includes stimulation from special molecules called mitogenic substances, inhibition by various anti-proliferative cytokines and regulation by adjacent cells. Most of the cancer cells including those involved in ALL, abandon these regulatory mechanisms. Various studies including one by Cipoloti et al. tried to isolate mutations in those tumor suppressor genes that are responsible for keeping a check during cellular division. An example is the inactivation of p15 gene in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ...
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