Personality traditionally refers to how people influence others through their external appearances and actions. But for psychologists, personality includes: (i) Eternal appearances and behavior (ii) the inner awareness of self as a permanent organizing force, and (iii) the particular organization of measurable traits, both inner and outer. Personality is an individual difference that lends consistency to a person's behavior. Personality is defined as a relatively stable set of characteristics that influence an individual's behavior. As we think that personality as the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. This is more often described in terms of measurable personality traits that a person exhibits. Personality may be hard to define but we now it when, we see it. He all makes personality judgments about the people we know. A major part of coming to understand ourselves is developing a sense of what our personality characteristics are. We even form impressions about the personalities of people we do not know but have only read about. Some might refer to someone as real personalities, meaning that they are unusual people. Others might use the term personality or to compliment or insult someone, as in "She has lots of [or absolutely no] personality. As we shall see, these everyday uses of the term are quite different from the meaning psychologists give to the term 'personality'. Though psychologists and social scientists unanimously agree to the importance of personality but they are unable to come up with a unanimous definition. When psychologists define 'Personality' they tend to refer to qualities within a person, characteristics of a person's behavior or both. In a famous definition, Psychologist Gordon Allport (1937) mentioned both, inner qualities and behavior but he emphasized the inner qualities. He defined personality, as "Personality is the dynamic organization with in the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment" (P. 48.). In a more recent definition psychologist Walter Mischel (1976) mentioned both inner processes and behavior but emphasized behavior. Personality, he wrote consists of "the distinctive patters of behavior (including thoughts and definitions) that characterizes each individual's adaptation to the situations of his or her life" (P., 2.). No single definition of personality is acceptable to all psychologists. However most agree that personality includes the behavior patterns a person shows across situations or the psychological characteristics of the person that lead to those behavior patterns. Complexity of the concept of personality as such leads to different ways of study of the subjects. Some have developed broad theories to explain the origins and makeup of personality. Others have focused only on one or two issues such as the influence of heredity on personality. The first approach, theory construction, was popular for many years. As a result, we have many broad personality theories. Most of these broad theories can be grouped into four categories: (1) type and trait approach, which focus on people's characteristics- stubbornness, shyness and so forth and how these characteristics are organized into systems; (ii) dynamic approach, which emphasize on-going
Why are some people quite and passive, while others are loud and aggressive' Are certain personality types better adapted for certain jobs' When we talk of personality, we mean a person who has charm, a positive attitude towards life, a smiling face etc. when psychologists talk of personality; they mean a dynamic concept describing the growth and development of a person's whole psychological system…
Fred Fiedler developed the first contingency model for leadership, known as The Fiedler contingency model. It is suggested the model is "the most comprehensive programme of research ever conducted on leadership" (Fiedler, 1967, as cited in Elkin and Inkson, 2000, p.
While some psychologist regard personality as something that is concealed as a hidden motive of the mind, others regard it as the private self or "the true self" beneath the masks that people wear in their daily social interactions. There are also some, who regard personality as a diamond consisting of diverse facets of behavior and belief.
With the ushering in of the IT revolution in the 21st century, effective communication at all levels is the single most important priority that can make or mar the prospects of an organization in today's ultra competitive environment. With the consumers having access to all sorts and all types of goods and services providers around the world, companies and organizations continually need to be in a learning mode so as to effectively adapt to the changes in a volatile market scenario.
Bernard Bass recommended that a good leader exhibits characteristics of both types of leaderships because these are different approaches.
This is a concise article which discusses the questions about Transformational leadership. What are main characteristics of Transformational leadership How it is different from transactional leadership and how the transformational leaders apply it on their subordinates Lastly, it describes its role in organizational life and its influence on individuals.
According to (Radcliffe,1998), "Stress can be good as well as bad. His response includes physiological changes-such as increased heart rate and muscle tension-as well as emotional and behavioral changes". However, most psychologists regard stress as a process involving a person's interpretation and response to a threatening event.
Britain was amongst the first nations to develop rules to regulate how companies operate and introduced a company registration scheme in 1844. Company Law has developed over the years both in common law and through various Acts of Parliament, most recently the Companies Act 2006 which is the first major overhaul of company law in the U.K.
Immigrants usually adapt to the culture of their host country while expatriates are set on returning to their homeland one day and usually do not blend with the foreign culture as they are on business and deem it to be unnecessary.
As the progressive trend in the growth of the businesses over the world is experienced, more and more businesses want to have a firm standing in the international market and due to this, a large number of assignments are being sent to other countries with expatriates (also known as expats).
The researches that were developed by the theorists, psychologists, and medical practitioners over time have given immeasurable undertaking to the approaches of behavior and personality traits that have become the basis for intervention in different aspects of mental health.
And, in the age of the information revolution, the quality of strategic decision-making is greatly influenced by the quality of information available for analysis and appropriate decision-making. The need for quality information, needless to say, suggests the significance of marketing research in strategic marketing decision-making and in ensuring business success, particularly so in the present business environments characterised by the pressures of global competition and fast paced changes in information and communication technologies as well as constantly evolving marketplaces and consumer choices.