John Stuart Mill's principle of liberty - Essay Example
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Today our society is preoccupied with notions of democracy, liberty, and observance of human rights, which we may tend to view as symbols of modernity. But many of us forget that modern Western societies rest on the heritage of thinkers who during several centuries had been laying the ground for modern democratic institutions and practices.1 In this regard, one of the important historical figures involved into perhaps the most thorough defence of principles of liberalism was John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), the British philosopher and economist thought to be among the most influential philosophers of the nineteenth century.2 In his treatise "On Liberty" Mill offered a principle of liberty which …
Utilitarianism is often summarized as “the greatest good for the greatest number” being used to calculate the moral correctness of an action, decision, or policy for both individuals and society on a common standard. Utilitarianism ideally judges actions based upon their outcome in producing the greatest happiness or pleasure for the greatest number of people, and therefore the ‘utility’ of an action can be calculated through its use in the production of the social good.
Lowell, Robert. Near the Ocean. Introduction When we talk about ethical principles of war, it may seem weird, because the question arises if there is any ethics in killing some people in favor of other people? Can any material possessions cost human lives?
necessity of undertaking once in my life to rid myself of all the opinions I had adopted, and of commencing anew the work of building from the foundation, if I desired to establish a firm and abiding superstructure in the sciences … Today, since I have opportunely freed my mind from all cares, and since I am in the secure possession of leisure in a peaceable retirement, I will at length apply myself earnestly and freely to the general overthrow of all my former opinions.” Descartes initiates his program thus in an approach typical of an ordinary scholar under critical doubt, capable of suspending beliefs of previous academic learning.
Referring to it as the principle of utility, Mill believes that the highest normative principle is that actions are moral as they tend to promote happiness and immoral as they tend to produce sadness or dissatisfaction. Although Mill was a utilitarian, he argued that not all forms of pleasure are of equal value, using his famous saying "It is better to be Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied." In this regard, John Stuart Mill rejects the classical virtue theory.
This principle is one that views actions as right and moral to the extent that they promote pleasure and exclude pain. It sees rightness and wrongness as existing on a continuum, upon which neither is necessarily exclusive of the other. Therefore, society's maximisation of utility consists in the achievement of the highest possible concentration of pleasure while minimising the amount of pain deriving from any action or law.
Immanuel Kant, a famous historical philosopher in the 18th and 19th century, proposed the ‘Categorical Imperative or Practical Imperative’ (Maj, 2002). In his ethical theory that takes on a deontological approach, Kant placed an emphasis on the “Good Will” of
on, Yoga Sutra particularly stands out among other Indian philosophy texts by virtue of being the, most widely translated and read Indian text in the English world. However, there have been recent calls for a new translation because of two major drawbacks of the current
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