McDowell’s notion of a virtuous agent depends on the “sensitivity” of the agent to see what a virtue requires (for instance, what constitutes prudence in a certain situation). This sensitivity arises in a virtuous agent when he or she is faced with the particular details of states of affairs. It is a perceptual awareness of the right reasons for acting in certain ways. Because such sensitivity amounts to getting things right, McDowell claims that this sensitivity is a form of knowledge, and since this sensitivity is a virtue, virtues extend directly from moral knowledge. As McDowell puts it, the reliable sensitivity constitutes knowledge and it is also a necessary condition for virtue. Accordingly, McDowell is claiming that knowledge is a necessary condition for virtues. But one can conceive of a person of who has moral knowledge, or virtues, but is unmotivated to act virtuously, which is a person that McDowell logically dismisses as impossible. However, it is a clear and intuitive possibility that simply because a person has moral knowledge, he or she is not necessarily motivated to act upon it. McDowell responds by claiming that a person who fails to act virtuously, even though he knew what amounted to virtue, failed to do so only by clouded judgment or a desire to do otherwise. This is the Aristotelian answer to the objection. However, what this response leads to is the rejection of virtue as anything more than sensitivity. Although McDowell has been claiming that virtue is more than sensitivity (it is also about acting upon the virtue), this reply to the objection of the unfocused, clouded desire implies that the failure to act is not due to the one’s lack of a thing that the virtuous person has. The virtuous person and the non-virtuous person have the same sensitivity to what virtue requires, so as a result, it cannot be the case that knowledge of what virtue requires is what separates the virtuous from the non-virtuous. Socrates overcomes this problem by claiming that the difference between a virtuous person and a non-virtuous person is ignorance. Unlike Aristotle, Socrates does not need to account for this objection with the existence of a desire or a clouded judgment, which is the approach McDowell takes as well. Instead, McDowell dismisses Socrates’ answer as extreme and favors instead the response given by Aristotle. A second premise inherent in McDowell’s “Virtue and Reason” is t
In “Virtue and Reason”, John McDowell addresses some ancient accounts of virtue ethics that, despite their age, still retain a fair amount of relevance to modern discourse about morality…
However, other theorists would argue that telling a lie is wrong whether said to save a life or to create good for people. Whatever the outcomes are the fact that telling a lie is telling a lie does not change under all circumstances. The former approach to ethics is a part of consequentialism; however, the latter is an example of deontological ethics.
Then, explain how this doctrine might be related to his claim in the Apology that "the unexamined life is not worth living". Protagoras is a dialogue by Plato, the main characters being Socrates and Protagoras. In the dialogue, Socrates suggests that human excellence amounts to the possession of wisdom.
These kinds of theories under the virtue ethics lay little or no emphasis at all on the kinds of rules people opt to select in favor of the others. The theory focuses on helping people have great character traits that are accepted in the society. Such characters are the ones that help people to develop well in life with such traits as kindness, as well as generosity.
Homer’s Iliad addresses the issue of virtue in its different facets throughout the whole poem. Even though Homer mainly depicts the Trojan War that opposes Achaeans and Trojans, some cultural and moral values are also displayed that reflect the social and cultural backgrounds of the people involved.
In a quote by contemporary philosopher Emrys Westacott, who says that “moral wisdom seems to be little connected to ethical theory as playing tennis is to knowledge of physics”, we witness a great insight into the field of moral
nst Hursthouse’s claims on virtue, Johnson bases his claims on the fact that Hursthouse has specified a “fully virtuous person” in the circumstances she mentions. He sets out another category of virtue, referring to those who are not fully virtuous, i.e., sub virtuous. In
On the other hand, John also includes some contents not found in the synoptic. He also portrays a different duration of the ministry of Jesus. With the perception of literary, the synoptic are written in the third person, hence a descriptive approach. The book
The attempt of various philosophical theories of morality is to construct a moral identity that would suit personal life and guide people on doing good or bad in the society. Kant is among philosophers who have strived to explain the morality of human behavior and the
Great philosophers such as Aristotle, Socrates and Plato had their propositions about what morality entails. Aristotle asked, “What is the good of man?”, whereas Socrates, Plato and others asked, “what
1 pages (250 words)Essay
Hire a pro to write a paper under your requirements!
Win a special DISCOUNT!
Put in your e-mail and click the button with your lucky finger
Apply my DISCOUNT
Got a tricky question? Receive an answer from students like you!Try us!
Let us find you an essay for FREE
Contact us via Live Chat, call us at +16312120006or send an email to email@example.com