Title of the Paper Customer Instructor University Date Contents Contents 2 Title 3 Literature Review 3 Introduction 5 Philosophy 6 Methodology: 7 Findings: 8 Theory 9 Ethical Issues 11 Legal & Political Issues 11 Conclusion 12 References 14 Title This paper contains the critical analysis of Pressures on Volunteers in Sport in the United Kingdom (UK) by Geoff Nichols…
(Auld, pg 96, 1994) Volunteers have become a valuable set of human resources in sport sector which relies heavily upon volunteers because a large number of individuals are often essential for creating and delivering sports services. The significance of volunteerism as an advantage and benefit to organizations has been highlighted by many scholars (e.g., Chelladurai & Madella, 2006; Clary, 2004; Cravens, 2006; Cuskelly & Boag, 2001; Twynam, Farrell, & Johnston, 2002/2003). Cuskelly, McIntyre, and Boag (1998) signified that volunteers tend to more meticulously commit themselves to organizations in a strong, positive manner given that the services from volunteers are more value-based than those of paid employees. (Cutforth, pg 54, 2005) An additional benefit is that because volunteers are not indebted to the organization or its managers for their livelihood, they can offer open feedback and constructive criticism to managers. (Grattan, pg 196, 1996) In sport, a huge number of volunteers make a real contribution in creating and helping sport events. For example, the athletic departments of many universities capitalize on the services of volunteer ushers during game days (Chelladurai, pg 97, 1999). In their 2002 survey, Sport England stated that for individual club volunteers, ‘social benefits’ that people get from volunteering is the major benefit for which people volunteer in sports events followed by ‘enjoyment’ being the second most cited benefit. These top two benefits for individual volunteers are significant to acknowledge in the perspective of increasing pressures on volunteers in sports to ‘perform’ more professionally in their voluntary roles (MacDougall, pg 37, 2007). Enjoyment is strongly followed by a set of satisfactions that are more humane in nature, including satisfaction from ‘giving something back’, helping the club do well and keeping the club going (Taylor, pg 119, 1998). In relation to London 2012, the potential for the Games to inspire volunteering amongst young people is of significant importance, providing young people with opportunities to consider career openings and destinations in the future (Nichols G, pg 33-55, 2005). Economically, volunteering is also an important way to cultivate skills in people and reduce barriers to the labor market. Important discussion about the degree to which volunteering has a part to play in building social capital and social outcomes is a matter of ongoing debate (King, pg 123, 2003). A study carried out by Manchester Metropolitan University revealed that the motivation for volunteering resides on a cluster of factors like being part of a team and supporting Manchester. Given the massive contribution of volunteers in the sport events, a greater understanding of volunteer motivations is very important in order for event managers to develop efficient volunteer recruitment and retention strategies (Clary, pg 98-102, 2004). Moreover, research on pressures on volunteer is significant for two significant reasons. First, the dependence of sports sector on volunteers (Yeung, pg 67, 2004). Second, the research area of volunteer pressures reflects and explores the notion of future ...
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