Kierkegaard is known to be the father of existentialism. He is also a highly known philosopher of the 19th century. Kierkegaard developed the idea of living life in a variety of stages. Aesthetical, ethical and the religious were his divisions of life. In his work, he claimed that he went through similar experiences during his lifetime, and he used the stages to establish his own philosophy of life and of human existence. He assessed the first two stages with regard to normal set of believes and behavior. However, the last stage developed based on personal and non-rational opinion “leap of faith” (Cooper 517). The aesthetical stage was characterized by immediacy and failure, to reflect with seriousness upon the nature of a person’s life. The people in this stage were defined to like material things and fulfilling their desires as they occurred. People become slaves to their senses and they tend to want to fulfill desires propelled by their senses. People would tend to fulfill needs they consider appropriate and other people’s opinion did not count. The stage represents two types of lifestyles; reflective and non-reflective immediacy. Alcohol, sex and drugs are some illustrations of satisfying unrefined immediacy. An individual acts without thinking because the satisfaction expected does not require thinking, refined immediacy, on the other hand characterized by thoughtful planning (Cooper 518). Sometimes people think before undertaking a certain action, but the thoughts do not put into consideration moral and ethical values. Reflection of the lifestyle embarked not put into consideration. Planning made in order to gain full satisfaction of the lifestyle. According to Kierkegaard this pleasures of life will eventually vanish, and an individual will be caught in a moment of despair (Kierkegaard n. p). In the end, one will get tired of the life of luxury and satisfaction would hardly be achieved. He considered this stage significant because after the moment of despair one develops a sense of ethical understanding. The ethical stage according to Kierkegaard provides a meaningful existence. The stage involves adhering to personal morals and ethics, pleasure and emotions are not the main factors towards happiness and satisfaction. Reason and a duty to fulfill a certain feeling engulf the stage. The ethical stage represents religious development and the responsibility that follows religious believes. One becomes a commitment participant in society. Image and reputation become the virtue of a person in this stage. Connection to the family members and friends becomes very significant, and marriage is a marvelous example of commitment represented in this stage. A mature person who has undergone a stage of mistakes and errors in life represents ethical stage. The ethical stage remains in a person’s life even after moving to the next stage of life; religion. In the aesthetical stage, one lacks the will of commitment and only personal satisfaction matters. For instance, when Kierkegaard experienced this stage he liked the life of pleasure and despised commitment that is why he broke his engagement to Regina Olsen a woman from Copenhagen. After he had broken the engagement, he began searching for a reason of life. He was tired with the pleasures of life. The personal letters he wrote during this period were mainly based on his feelings and thoughts of life where he stated that his
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Name Professor Course Date Existentialism Existentialism is a movement developed in the 20th century. The goal of the movement was to ensure people had freedom of determining the meaning of life instead of believing of the existence of a higher being. According to the group, this meant that there is no God and that human beings are free and accountable to their own lives…
Man cannot determine his own existence except if that man is a secular humanist. There is no way one can be both atheist and theist. This is unprincipled marriage of convenience that only calls secularism. Therefore, existentialism is a quasi-secular humanist philosophy.
In their views, Buber, Levinas, Wiesel and Frankl have expressed different views concerning the relations between God and a man under oppressive conditions of Holocaust. Buber claimed that God did not reveal his presence in the XX century. Otherwise occurrence of Auschwitz would hardly happen.
It all started with Soren Kierkegaard who was a Christian existentialist. He claimed that the highest accomplishment for a human’s existence is that of a personal relationship with God (Kierkegaard, 2004). Kierkegaard claims that it is the duty of Christians to define the conditions under which they exist.
While some considered it as a way of imitation, some others considered it as a form of communication. For people like Freud, art meant a way for the artist to present his or her hidden desires and, thus, a way for the receiver not only to fondle their hidden desires but also to look into the mindset of the artist.
In other words, a human being is first an individual before other labels, roles or stereotypes (Flynn 156). This suggests that human beings should always act under their own consciousness in order to establish their values. This also entail the determination of the meaning their lives in relation to the existing environment.
Many philosophers have discussed the concept of freedom for many years, centuries even. It is so fundamental that freedom was defined by different people with different views on its scope and limitations. Alan Singer stated in The Meaning of Freedom in the Modern World that Libertarians identify freedom with the absolute right of individuals to control their own lives and want sharp restrictions on the power of government to interfere with the social and economic market place… In communist countries such as China and the former Soviet Union, freedom was defined as a collective or social value.
Not only that, but also one author-Alfred Otto Wolfgang Schulze (commonly referred to as "Wols")-also wrote essential pieces regarding existentialism.
Throughout all of these writings, it will be made obvious that existentialism had a great impact on post-World War II European art.
The second is that there is no meaning in the universe. People try to impose meaning upon the world but it is a false meaning which only distracts them from the reality of nothingness. The third is that even though there are no rules in the universe, there is a personal responsibility to one's self.
Transcendence & Facility' and 'Being-for-others & the look' are all interrelated. The basic philosophies that we find common in all these works are that of ethics, existentialism, meta-physics. With reference to the literary and philosophical work by Sartre, in this paper I will discuss Early in "Existentialism is a Humanism", Sartre says that "God does not exist, and it is necessary to draw the consequences of his absence right to the end" (p.
There was only duration, only existence, and it was to be endured, not celebrated. However, at its core this was an empty philosophy and one with no real substance. Two of the great existentialist thinkers, Sartre and Camus, clearly illustrate this
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