Therefore, this poses another critical question: what would you do if harming or killing the other party will elude the highest happiness? For instance, a person driving along a tunnel and realizes a farmer fall on the road just in front of his vehicle. If you move ahead, you will probably kill the farmer but if you divert, you will probably collide with a forthcoming school bus and the least number of deaths that you can cause is five. The big question is what do you and are we convinced that utilitarianism gives the right answer. It is alleged that when telling the truth, we have to strive and reduce pain and unhappiness in whatever we do as unhappiness and pains have numerous sources. Furthermore, there are instances when truth makes somebody unhappy. Thereby, if one has to lie to make the other party happy. He therefore comes up with three cases in this argument. First, is it right to tell a friend who is fond of singing while taking a shower. He posits that your friend all along has thought his voice is the best but he sings poorly. Thus, should you tell your friend the truth and ruin his confidence? Secondly, he asserts that you have just learned that a man who has been missing for a very long time is dead. What is the right step for you to do? Should you tell the family member of the sad news even if it will make them despair? Later he question if it is okay to wrong for one to lie, is there any moral duty that is attached in telling the truth however much the consequences might be? More so, do the duties confirm that we are misled by the principles of utility? Freedom in life also includes purposes for one to live which state that we should minimize happiness. The activities are not limited in terms of national rules and regulations or in private life. Therefore is it always true to be happy in the actions that we engage in? For instance, is it right to volunteer all your evenings to make the poor happy. That is, if you spare one of you evenings, the poor will become happy but their happiness will increase more if you dedicate all your evenings. Is this the right thing to do? Freedom is also governed by features of utilitarianism and its evaluation. He states that the principle of utilitarianism classifies a right action if it produces huge amount of happiness and it at the same time reduces unhappiness. For instance he questions the credibility of either building a new hospital or a new sports stadium. He concludes that the viability of building a stadium depends on the level of happiness that it creates on the fans and the level of pain it will cause on the sick. Thus, according to Bentham, the option that will yield huge balance of pleasure will be opted. Thus, happiness is like pleasure with the absence leading to happiness. Furthermore, Bentham utilitarianism counts all the pains and pleasure and all types of pain and pleasure is treated equally. Lastly, this Bentham states that one person should sacrifice for the sake of the others. Thus, we can evaluate utilitarianism by use of the aspects of happiness and pleasure. The libertarians argue that for one to be free he must be sponsored by the government in all ways. Thus, the libertarians blame the government as it is the source of threat to human rights. They think that law is the main inhibitor to the people’
Name Instructor Course Date Justice Freedom is oneself. For instance, the moral side of committing murder is a test of freedom. In the philosophy of utilitarianism, includes the principles of utility. Therefore, harming an innocent and utilitarianism are two vital aspects of freedom that are quite controversial in choosing what is right and what is wrong…
Without doubt, the fundamental concern in this regard in the fact that through a proper system, justice and equality exists better in the system. The essence of this assertion relates to the aspect that rich people will normally have a greater say in the society than poor people.
It is evident from the study that in order to recover from criticism of his theory, John Rawls constantly develops recasts, revises and expands his theory of justice. His works despite being criticized cannot be discarded since there are no alternative theories provided by Sandel. Rawls will be commemorated for his impartial model of justice as fairness.
She is adamant that the political leaders are vesting power in few individuals who do not incorporate the interests of the masses. She asserts that an individual is autonomous when he is not subject to directives of a superior authority. The political dominion is significant since it is the realm of authority hence it can regulate the freedoms of various individuals and organizations through legislative forums (Berkowitz Keenan & Katz 2009).
According to Kant, human beings and all other creatures that are rational tend to not only have ends but also have intrinsic value. Because of this, he states that it is not moral for human beings to use each other as means for their own ends. Kant further states that the principle of humanity and any creature that is rational as an end in itself are not borrowed from experience, moreover it is clear that all those rational beings are members of a universal kingdom of ends.
The contemporary world is characterized by unequal distribution of wealth, resources, and power. With regard to the American society today, it is clear that there are capitalistic elements present in the society. Karl Marx in the nineteenth century addressed the theme of capitalism, which results in denial of justice to some class of people in the society.
In contrast to simple equality, Walzer defines his concept as follows: "In formal terms, complex equality means that no citizen's standing in one sphere or with regard to one social good can be undercut by his standing in some other sphere, with regard to some other good.
Consequently, he offers a synthesis of empiricism and rationalism while disputing the idea that knowledge of the true world is discovered by way of reason or inferred from experience.
Kant believed that despite
Table 1 shows descriptive statistics for both rape and robbery. The total number of observations is in the column “N”, which shows that 20 observations were made for both rape and robbery. The mean for rape is lower than that for robbery,
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