Course Date Philosophy: Spinoza and Leibniz Introduction: Historical Backgrounds Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677) was from Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam, Dutch Republic, but was excommunicated (law of 'cherem') in the age of 23, 1655…
(Montag, 2002) Further on, his meditations on the 'nature of Divine' were connected with such intellectual and philosophical movements of the time as Pantheism, Determinism, neutral monism, intellectual and religious freedom, separation of church and state, and so on. (Nadler, 1999) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646 ---1716) was born in Leipzig, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire, and died in Hannover, Electorate of Hannover. Great German philosopher had wider recognition not only because of his metaphysical works (problems of 'theodicy' as well as of 'universal language'), but also because of his impact in mathematics and history of logic (Woolhouse and Francks, 1998). Briefly speaking, he invented lots of things: 'infinitesimal calculus;' 'monadic' concept; thesis that our Earth was the 'best of all possible worlds;' then, there were also 'Leibniz harmonic triangle;' 'Leibniz formula for determinants;' 'Leibniz integral rule;' principle of sufficient reason; 'diagrammatic reasoning;' notation for differentiation; kinetic energy; proof of Fremat's little theorem; 'law of continuity;' 'transcendental law of homogeneity;' 'calculus ratiocinator;' binary number system, etcetera (Jolley, 1995). The Role of God in the Ideas of Spinoza and Leibniz God exists in both systems of Spinoza and Leibniz. ...
e determined by the nature of God.' Giving an answer on a complicated question about 'free choices' and 'actions determinated,' it is possible to find out a right correlation between 'free choices' of human beings and 'Divine determination,' according to Spinoza and Leibniz. Spinoza on God: 'Ethics' There are several names for this 'transcendental agent' in Spinoza's fundamental writing: God, Nature, and Universe. 'Reality is perfection,' (Nadler, 1999) therefore, 'if circumstances are seen as unfortunate it is only because of our inadequate conception of reality.' (Nadler, 2006) Moreover, there is a 'universal truth,' but abilities of our intellect are always so miserable and limited, that we are able to see only a fragment of chain of cause and effect; that is why 'emotion is formed from inadequate understanding.' (Nadler, 1999) Essentially, only 'intuitive knowledge is eternal,' and 'the world as it exists looks imperfect only because of our limited perception.' (Nadler, 2006) Concerning a question on 'freedom of human will' and 'eternal determination by a transcendental subject,' it should be stated that for Spinoza such separation does not make sense at all. He is concerned with a limited abilities of human intellectus, and his idea is that when this intellectus in a perfect condition being developed sufficiently, such person knows 'eternal truth' or 'universal principle' of how things are, or used to be, or how they will be. The question about 'freedom of will' is about a level of our hesitation about such truth inside ourselves, an issue about our state of mind, or cognitive abilities of our intellect, more developed or totally undeveloped. When it is undeveloped, we are thinking that we are totally free from restrictions, but when we have our abilities and ...
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He is of the view that Locke appears to be interested in the epistemic role of relations, though he seems to be refuting the possibility of relationship between the objects. (104) Relations are relative and comparative that are exhibited on the basis of their various traits and characteristics including size, magnitude, appearance and association etc, which is based upon the word or idea depicting the personality or his characteristics.
Gilles Deleuze (2001) has elaborated the Leibniz’s doctrine in his famous fold theory where he defines the Baroque as an operative function that is endlessly producing folds. The operative function, according to him, takes place on two scales, i.e. the pleats of matter and the folds of the soul. The author finds strong relationship between the two.
Leibniz's philosophical system is as follows:
His conceptions of the nature of propositions and of substances. All propositions assert the inclusion of one concept in another. Thus, anyone who fully understands the concept of man must know everything else that is to know about him - his current situation, history and future.
Steven Pinker and John Searle (2002) had an argument on words and rules and had involved rationalism and empiricism. According to Searle, Pinker claims that there are two aspects to the debate between empiricism and rationalism. This are a psychological side (where the rationalists, unlike the empiricists, were "obsessed by combinatorial grammar") and an epistemic side (where the rationalists thought "knowledge comes from making deductions using theories").
In the readings consulted, Spinoza did not really argue for or against the existence of God, though he stated that the existence of God was a logical conclusion.He took that as a given. What Spinoza was attempting was a definition of the nature of God and of all existence
The medieval belief was that faith and reason were not separate notions, but rather these together ‘depicts a world in which everything accorded with the divine purpose’ (Hauptli 2005). This medieval view on faith and reason, along with Aristotle’s
His notion of monads veers away from Spinoza’s account of substance, and is more similar to ancient Greek ideas. In this paper, the author discusses Leibniz’s concept of substance vis-à-vis his monadology, and argues that while it may not
One either has the adequate idea as truth, or one has the inadequate idea as falsity. Since knowledge of God involves his eternal and infinite essence, one must conceive an idea in its most perfect form so that it can be equated with Gods knowledge. In general, the human
As Spinoza was cynical about the man-like form that God takes on in many Christian-based religions, he came to believe that God had to have been part of the creation of nature and the like.
Another aspect to the nature of God and nature in general that Spinoza points out is