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Student's Name Instructor's Name Course Date Philosophy: Spinoza and Leibniz Introduction: Historical Backgrounds Baruch Spinoza (1632---1677) was from Portuguese Jewish community of Amsterdam, Dutch Republic, but was excommunicated (law of 'cherem') in the age of 23, 1655.
(Montag, 2002) Further on, his meditations on the 'nature of Divine' were connected with such intellectual and philosophical movements of the time as Pantheism, Determinism, neutral monism, intellectual and religious freedom, separation of church and state, and so on. (Nadler, 1999) Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (1646 ---1716) was born in Leipzig, Electorate of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire, and died in Hannover, Electorate of Hannover. Great German philosopher had wider recognition not only because of his metaphysical works (problems of 'theodicy' as well as of 'universal language'), but also because of his impact in mathematics and history of logic (Woolhouse and Francks, 1998). Briefly speaking, he invented lots of things: 'infinitesimal calculus;' 'monadic' concept; thesis that our Earth was the 'best of all possible worlds;' then, there were also 'Leibniz harmonic triangle;' 'Leibniz formula for determinants;' 'Leibniz integral rule;' principle of sufficient reason; 'diagrammatic reasoning;' notation for differentiation; kinetic energy; proof of Fremat's little theorem; 'law of continuity;' 'transcendental law of homogeneity;' 'calculus ratiocinator;' binary number system, etcetera (Jolley, 1995). The Role of God in the Ideas of Spinoza and Leibniz God exists in both systems of Spinoza and Leibniz. ...
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