China's total fertility rate is 1.7, which means that, on average, each woman gives birth to 1.7 children throughout her life, nonetheless, China's population is expected to grow over the next few decades.4 (PGR) This can be attributed to immigration and a decrease in both infant mortality and death rate as national health standards improve. By the late 2010s, China's population is expected to reach 1.4 billion. Around 2030, its population is anticipated to peak and then slowly start dropping. However, one of the demographic consequences of the "one child" policy has been that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. 5
Ethnic and religious groups
China has numerous ethnic groups (56) as constituents of its population. (Appendix ). The Han Chinese is the most numerous. Many of the ethnic minorities have their own culture and language, but many are becoming more like the Han who dominates the whole of China except Tibet and Xianjiang where the Han is still a minority. In the absence of an 'equal opportunity law', one is free to advertise for a preferred ethnic group for employment. However, most government bodies are required to employ at least one member of an ethnic minority.
China was established in 1949 as an officially atheist state, and organized religion was banned and religious belief and practice were discouraged. During the Cultural Revolution, religion was condemned as feudalistic and thousands of religious buildings were looted and destroyed. The 1978 the Chinese Constitution reversed the atheist stance of the government and guaranteed freedom of religion. Many Chinese actually continue to practice a wide variety of religions. One source gives about 100 million religious worshippers in China: Buddhists 72%;...
Trade has been growing rapidly during the reform period. In 1952 exports and imports were each running at a miserable US$1 billion. By 1970 they were just over double that, though world trade had expanded many times since 1952. The limited opening up that occurred in the late Mao period brought exports and imports each to about US$7.5billion, only slightly better. Then under Deng Xiaoping, two-way trade shot up: from less than US$15billion in 1975, it grew to $38billion in 1980, nearly $70billion in 1985, and $115billion by 1990. The rapid growth continued in the 1990s, especially after Deng's southern tour in January 1992, and by 1999 two-way trade was worth US$360bn. Imports were balanced with exports when the two were too small to be worth worrying about, then in the 1980s imports exceed exports, and in most years in the 1990s there was a substantial trade surplus.
China's foreign trade figures were US $1150 billion in 2004, more than double that of 2001. At the end of 2004, China became the world's third largest trading nation behind the United States and Germany.
China’s trade surplus has been positive over many years. In 2005, her exports were valued at $762.0 billion and imports at $ 660.12 billion, giving a BOT surplus of US$ 102. China's principal trading partners are US, Japan, Germany, Singapore, South Korea, Russia, and Australia. With the US, China had a trade surplus of $170 billion in 2004, more than double of the 1999 figure. China has become an integral part of the world’s trading system.