The Scandinavian Model attempts to provide benefits to all citizens on an equal footing, regardless of employment status. In contrast, The Beveridge Model seeks to provide benefits to those citizens perceived as experiencing "the greatest need" (Ploug). First advocated by the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck, the third model benefits most "those who have been on the labour market" (Ploug), and the fourth model places the burden of welfare on the family. It is with the first two of these models, and the countries in which they are practiced, that this essay is concerned.
Quality of life is in large part dictated by the way in which a state runs its welfare policies. Such concepts as social cohesion versus social exclusion are important identifiers of the quality of life that is typical in a state. These things influence and are influenced by such variables as citizenship, migration, and even the state of the family units. State welfare policies often have much to say on these topics. Though many are the domestic factors influencing the direction of a state's policies, these policies are often also influenced by outside factors, such as trade and senior governing bodies.
Since its inception, the European Union has implemented policies that have affected the way its member states carry out their own social welfare policies. ...Show more