Through much of the Cold War, realism (a later neorealism) dominated the international relations literature. This particular focus placed an almost exclusive emphasis on the state. However, with the introduction of concepts like interdependence theory in the 1970s by scholar like Keohane and Nye (1977), alternative positions started to emerge. These alternative - neoliberalism in particular - approaches argued that economics and scare resources forced states to interact with each other in increasingly frequency and in doing so states ceded sovereignty to international institutions.
While neorealism remained dominant even after the Cold War, these alternatives raised important questions not only about state sovereignty, but also about the existence of international actors and their relationship with the state and between each other. One particular approach that gained momentum after the Cold War was the concept of Global Civil Society (GCS). GCS examines non-state actors such as Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), non-state organisations and social movements as a whole. Many of these concepts, though, are not new to the post-Cold War era. ...Show more