"Democratic societies are those in which the authority of those who govern is derived from the will of the people (typically determined by some form of vote). These societies are liberal to the extent that they are organized to guarantee basic liberties (such as freedom of expression, and religious practice) as well as various protections (for example, against discrimination, coercion, and abuse) to all society members in pursuit of a good life." (Shweder, Minow, and Markus 2004 P. 2). The differences among the liberal democracies in the modern world have been the primary cause for different experiences for the minority groups. The 'culturalist' ethos of 'multiculturalism has been a relevant issue in the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity, though 'culturalism' cannot be regarded as equivalent to 'culture'. One of the most essential consequences of the hiatus of the discussions on the changing configurations of the power relations of economic, political, and cultural elements has been the need for meaningful discussions about 'cultural difference' in relation to the politics of equality and justice. ...
tural differences, one of the essential questions for the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity to consider is whether it is enviable for us now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences. To answer to this essential question, this profound analysis of the topic presumes that it is extremely desirable for the Politics of Migration and Ethnicity now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences.
The essential question whether it is enviable for us now to abandon the politics of equality in favour of cultural differences engages one in an examination of the challenges on multiculturalism in contemporary liberal democracies. Cultural diversity is the crude reality of modern era which is the product of various processes such as globalisation and growing migration across borders. In this rapidly globalising world, the mounting number of people migrating to better destinations, due mainly to labour market opportunities abroad and political turmoil back home, has resulted in an important global situation of 'one nation and many cultures'. These realities of the modern multicultural environment also raise central questions concerning politics of equality and cultural differences. "Given global economic developments and emerging cultural and political trends, liberal democracies face not only burgeoning numbers of immigrants, but also their own hidden assumptions about the scope and limits of tolerance for cultural diversity. The particular history (or lack of history) of prior struggles over racial and religious diversity within each nation sets the legal and political framework for responses to current immigrants." (Shweder, Minow, and Markus 2004 P. 4). Therefore, the central issues of the cultural differences in the