In recent literature, researchers underline that multiple and antisocial personality disorder is real but that it rarely occurs spontaneously, without prompting, and therefore does not deserve to be a primary-level diagnosis. A special attention is given to gender differences and behavior patterns of patients and possible treatment methods…
Their behavior is characterized by a callous lack of concern for the feelings of others, gross irresponsibility and disregard for social norms and obligations, inability to maintain close relationships, a very low tolerance of frustration and violence and aggression, an inability to experience guilt or to profit from experience or punishment, and a tendency to blame others for their errant behavior.
Ang and Hughes (2002) examine the differences of antisocial personality disorder in adults. They found that the psychometric properties are weak for women in contrast to male sample group. On interviewing these patients the lack of any sense of right or wrong, and of moral responsibility, can be deep-rooted, obvious and pervasive. This inability to empathize with the feelings of others, and a lack of imagination as to the consequences of their behavior, can lead to serious considerations of public safety for which treatment efforts are of uncertain efficacy and have to be secondary to considerations of security and containment. Some of these psychopathic adults with learning disability are to be found among the population of persistent fire-raisers and sex offenders (particularly offenders with children).
Bryan and Stallings (2002) and Crawford (2004) found that aggressive and violence behavior is not typical. Also, these criteria were not included in DSM-III or RDC classification. Personality and personality disorder are elusive concepts which have not been well-researched by psychiatrists. All too often the term 'personality disorder' becomes a pejorative label with no implications for treatment or services. If it is no more than that it would be better abandoned. That is not an option because, however imperfect our knowledge, we know that personality is one of the key issues in determining the success or otherwise of community living for adults with learning disability, and is equally important as physical dependency needs and frank psychiatric illness. Researchers admit that it is important to revise diagnostic criteria for male and female patients and apply new criteria to antoscoial personality disorder. Psychiatry needs to extend and consolidate our knowledge in this area, with a view to formulating practical treatment and management programs. Personality probably consists of characteristics which have been present since adolescence, are stable over time despite fluctuations in mood, are manifest in different environments and are clearly recognizable to friends and acquaintances.
Woodward et al (2002) examine gender differences in romantic relations and sexual relations in people with antisocial personality disorders. The study found that "Females reported higher rates of partnership formation than males" (p. 231). Most of these personality assessment schedules do, however, involve a component of self-report and subject participation and this is beyond the competence of people with any significant degree of learning disability. Hence, personality disorder has been one of the least researched areas of learning disability psychiatry, and the few studies there are tend to be idiosyncratic and unscientific. A multitrait-multimethod approach would utilize diverse measurements for a broad range of traits in order to establish construct validity for the underlying constellation of ...
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