Theoretical Approaches to Counselling

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There are three dominant approaches to counseling, each with theoretical, practical and relational aspects. They are the person-centered, the psychodynamic and the cognitive-behavioral approaches. These approaches are used in the practice of mental health counselors who whether are teaching clinical skills in academic settings, providing on-site supervision for practicum and internship students, or serving as clinical supervisors for unlicensed or less experienced counselors.


Psychotherapy-driven supervision is illustrated for three theoretical approaches: humanistic-relationship oriented, cognitive-behavioral, and solution-focused.
This approach is often referred to as Rogerian counseling after its founder Carl Rogers, who was convinced that human beings were essentially positive, forward-looking and realistic by nature. This type of humanistic counseling deals with the ways in which people perceive themselves consciously rather than having a counselor try to interpret unconscious thoughts or ideas. There are many different components and tools used in person-centered counseling, including active listening, genuineness, paraphrasing, and more. The real point is that the client already has the answers to the problems and the job of the counselor is to listen without making any judgements, without giving advice, and simply help the client feel accepted and understand their own feelings. The fundamental premise upon which Carl Rogers based his theory was that the individual has within himself the resources for self-understanding, for challenging and altering self-concepts, attitudes and behaviors. ...
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