There are a plethora of viable counselling models that are suitable when engaging children for therapeutic intentions. The appropriateness of the model determined to be most effective for supportive healing is interdependent with the current developmental characteristics of the youth. …
The appropriateness of the model determined to be most effective for supportive healing is interdependent with the current developmental characteristics of the youth. Application of a chosen counselling technique must be aligned with youth values, emotional adjustment and cognitive capacity if there are to be productive and life-long outcome sustainability. There is object relation theory, a psychoanalytic conception describing how a psyche is developed during infancy which shapes the totality of human consciousness and personality. A child experiencing abuse, trauma or neglect from a caregiver will, under this theory, carry these objects, patterns carried into the subconscious which predict similar negative behaviours from others who are reminiscent of earlier, negative caregivers. Similar to object relations theory is Winnicott’s model of the good-enough mother, focusing on the imperative of early infancy caregivers and the caregiver role in laying the foundation of positive mental health therapeutic touch in what is referred to as the holding environment. Despite the relevancy of the aforementioned theories which are beneficial in assisting in knowledge production about what drives maladjusted behaviours, there is much more contemporary emphasis on attachment as a primary consideration for counsellors working with children. Research into contemporary counselling theory and practice, to determine what model maintains the most relevant counselling structure, has indicated a stark congruency between counsellor personalities constructs and behaviours along with youth competencies both socially and psychologically. Winnicott theory deals with the imperative of authentic caregiver role in promoting touch as a viable infant development need, thus this essay focuses primarily on attachment theory and its tangible influences on determining appropriate counselling strategies, the importance of counsellor self-awareness as well as counsellor emotional and psychological development, and identification of strategies most practical to improve maladjusted child behaviours according to respected models of counselling. The relevancy of child attachment, security, and bias removal in counselling practice The relationship between counsellor and child is paramount and there are some basic principles, for example when the therapist and child relate genuinely to each other free from transference. In this gestalt the unexplained does happen. Commitment to psychological counselling and necessary psychotherapeutic exploration, the elements of relating that are being transferred from previous relationships and which may emanate from either patient or therapist. A nurturing relationship where this may have been absent, not good enough, destroyed or lacking information concerning intra-psychic processes leads to the subliminal reparative: A nurturing relationship where this was absent not good enough or destroyed, impacting attachment. Most counselling theorists, researchers and practitioners sustain consensus related to attachment and its role in developing a therapeutic program of child counselling. Attachment is a fundamental and critical circumstance which either facilitates effective and well-adjusted emotional development or serves as a hindrance to positive cognitive, social and psychological growth. Generally speaking, attachment occurs very early in the infancy stage of development between caregiver and child in which smell, touch, language, and blatant caregiver exhibition of infant security determine outcomes such as trust versus mistrust (Holmes, 1993; Bowlby, 1988). The nurturing nature of caregiver behaviours serve as significant predictors of whether a child, in advancing ...
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