Hence, such influence may impact on the development of Muslim communities and practices. Post 9/11, however, such influence has metamorphosed to interference even in religious and social organizations and institutions so much so that the Muslim communities in these states feel discriminated not only due to the differences in treatment as against the majority community but also as against treatment meted out to other minority groups such as the Sikhs and the Jews.
Anti-terror legislations give law enforcement agencies sweeping powers to inspect individuals, organizations and institutions making members of the Muslim community feel insecure and marginalized. Coupled with other interference in cultural practices such as the wearing of hijab by Muslim school girls, the heat of the state's interferences in their exclusive domain has alienated the community to an extent where it has become difficult to gauge the feelings and intentions of a patriot from a paranoid (Jocelyne Cesari, p65).
In a climate dominated by fears of international Islamic terrorism, an oscillation in French public policy between including the diversity of Muslims and favoring specific tendencies has shaped the state organization of Islam (Jocelyne Cesari, p73).
Also, different countries in Europe have different opinion and attitudes on Islam. ...Show more