This group rejected to live the previous ways; thus believed that the Judgment Day was near. They formed new societies and much confusion in the social order. The reformation contributed to issues such as the dead of the blacks, western rupture and eroding faith of people in the catholic churches. The fall of the Roman Emperor contributed to the reformation and circulation of protestant churches. Under the Roman Emperor Christianity spread and many churches evolved. The Roman Catholic Church, which became one of the most prominent churches to the councils evolved. It organized in Trent, which is an education centre for church teachings especially in the tradition and scripture issues. Council of the Trent is a convention of cathedral councils or theological professionals whose purpose is to resolve church policy matters or practices. The councils provide teaching programs for the community priests in order to augment pastoral care. This was initiated by the Roman Catholic Church under Pope Paul 1112 (Becchio and Johannes 98). The council of the Tent provided teachings, reasserted traditional practices and articulated dogmatic of the Catholic Church doctrines. These doctrines include the seven sacraments, celibacy, belief of taking wine and bread during the mass services, which they translated as the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Other doctrines included worship of remnants and saints whom they referred as the Holy Virgin Mary. Others included the significant of having faith and working towards achieving salvation. Moreover, the ecumenical councils of the Roman Catholic Church made a significant reform on dogmatic issues in the 16th and 17th century. The transformation known as the catholic reformation was the restoration era for the Catholics and it began with the Council of Trent. Some scholars consider the council of Trent as being responsible for Protestant Reformation. They laid strict issues, which the protestant minster nearly disputed. Pope Paul 111 reformed the Roman Catholicism in many European areas. In the first period of the Roman Catholicism, they church accepted the 3Nicene Creed as the basis for the catholic conviction (Queen, Prothero and Shattuck 76). They set the old and New Testament canons and fixed seven sacraments. However, this dogmatic ruled out the doctrines of Martin Luther’s beliefs of faith jurisdiction. The general council established the transubstantiation of doctrines and offered Episcopal authority verdict and other doctrine issues. However, many issues that contributed to protestant reformation started disappearing, and the church began to reclaim many of its followers by the end of the 16th century. The council of the Trent focused so much on education of the clergy because of varied reasons. First, they wanted to eradicate the mistreatments of the 4Catholic cathedral such as alms treats in order to advance the superiority of bishops. This was seen essential to the Catholics because they protestant churches criticized their teachings. Hence, they emphasized on the importance of the church teachings and created new rules that clergies were to follow. They followed the teachings of Martin Luther and Calvin and rejected any other reformation leaders. The council of Trent played considerable roles in renewing the catholic cathedral5 of Europe
CHURCH REFORMATION IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURY Name: Tutor: Course: Institution: Date: Church Reformation in the 16th and 17th century The 16th and 17th century is the period when church reformation for catholic and Protestants churches took place. It is a period for the catholic and protestant reformation, which was a powerful influence of western Christians…
History of the Reformation is a subject of many societies which are engaged in the history of religion and churches, as well as special public societies on the history of the Reformation in Germany and the U.S. The greatest attention of western researchers is drawn by the Reformation in Germany (more precisely – the study of Martin Luther’s theology), Calvinism, Christian humanism (especially Erasmus).
The overturning of traditional views on nature led to the emergence of modern scientific outlook that was perhaps best portended in the work of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), a prominent representative of the Renaissance astronomy that for the first time laid a solid mathematic base for heliocentric cosmology.
Colonialism is one such bleak aspect of our history, which was justified then on the pretext of “White man burden”, “Civilizing savages”, “Natural right” etc. Although the history of colonialism is old but normally it is considered the period, which witnessed rise of European nations and their occupation of different parts of the world.
There is also a clear commitment to diversity, and tolerance of different branches of Christianity alongside many other religions. It is hard to imagine a society where one religion, or even one branch of a religion, completely dominates, dictating how people should live.
The Puritans have been both honored and vilified for the creation of American culture, politics, and society over nearly four centuries, although it has been debated as to extent that this may be true, and whether we in fact understand Puritanism accurately today (cf.
He believed that five major changes had to happen to return liturgy from a tradition-based one to a Christocentric one. Luther also prized congregational worship and Bible-based liturgy over the Catholic one which patronized dead, erroneous, unchanging and ritualistic ceremony.
(Cotrett, 2003) In between 1931 to 1933, Calvin experienced a sudden conversion and finally he grasped Protestantism as his final course of life. In October 1933, Calvin fled to Paris and for three years he roamed Italy, France and Switzerland. He was critical about French Catholic Church and spent a tough time in France after he resigned to accept Roman Catholic Church and came up as a vulnerable Protestants.
In the modern setting, racism is still a very sensitive topic that everyone tries to avoid because of the complexities that it may convey. Consequently, creating unconventional characters such as a protagonist who is black, noble and respectable and carries a high rank in the army, and an antagonist who is white and evil, is something that is totally outrageous when Shakespeare first brought ‘Othello’ to his 17th century European audience.
In the society that we have in the United States today, which can be described as humanistic modernism, religion is an important aspect of our culture, but it exists as one aspect among many others. There is also a clear commitment to diversity, and tolerance of different branches of Christianity alongside many other religions.