We went through intricate aseptic techniques for preparing microbial cultures from the commensal population of microbes in the GI tract isolated from the diabetic and normal rats for recording their count from the extent of lactate, acetate, and glucose production based on four kinds of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae sp, Lactobacillus sp, and Enterococcus sp. The basic kinds of agar displays that were used included, Mannitol Salt Agar for Staphylococcus aureus, MacConkey Agar for Enterobacteriaceae sp, Slanetz & Bartley agar for Enterococcus sp and MRS Agar for Lactobacillus sp. Subsequently we observed the commensal microbial growth in 4 and 8 week diabetic rats along with that in normal rats for obtaining comparative figures through a number of confirmation tests including Catalase test, Coagulase Test, RAPIDEC Staph Test, Oxidase test and API 20E Test. Significant findings showed that the diabetic rats weighed more than the normal rats. The stool of the Ileum and colon of normal and diabetic rats were sent to investigate the microbial aberrancies, after the induction of streptozotocin. Consequently there was an incidental increase in GI tract microbes. The results showed that diabetes in rats were caused 3 days after streptozotocin.
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D)is a condition where the level of blood glucose rises due to absence of insulin. Here either insulin is not formed or if formed then the amount is very little. This condition usually occurs under the age of 30 and the patient requires insulin injections for life. Type 1 Diabetes is known as insulin dependent and juvenile onset diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes is associated with a number of autoimmune conditions. The strongest association is with Celiac disease, Hashimoto's disease, or hypothyroidism; Graves' disease, or hyperthyroidism; Addison's disease, or adrenal failure, and Pernicious anemia
The link between the GI tract immune system and T1D has been suggested by studies that have demonstrated that dietary factors modify the disease in animal models of autoimmune diabetes(Vaarala, 2004).
These microbial organisms play an essential role in the anerobic breakdown of carbohydrates and protein molecules, thereby affecting the energy storage mechanism in the hosts. Indigestible dietary fibers are broken into Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA) by these commensal microbes and polysaccharides are efficiently broken down to monosaccharide units prior to be absorbed from the lumen of the gastro intestinal tract for subsequent hepatic lipogenesis (Backhed et al., 2004). These metabolites that are end products of bacterial degradation are important for colonal activity causing motility and secretion during digestive processes (Scheppach, 1994).
The commensal microbes in the GI tract also induce the expression of certain genes coding proteins necessary for cellular functions in the system. There are significant evidences to prove that the Ang4 expression in the small intestine is controlled by the microbial flora. The GI tract bacteria are also responsible for causing faster Ang4 processes in the intestine, which results in innate immune