A fascinating interplay of pathways and signals are involved in calcium regulation. As research and new technologies evolve, new aspects are elucidated in these complex mechanisms. Various animal models have been used in order to understand the cellular responses and the hormonal regulation (Eckermann 2008).
Moe (2008) states "normal homeostatic regulation maintains serum levels, intracellular levels, and optimal mineral content in bone", summarizing the intricacy of structures and organs that contribute to "normal" levels. The major organs involved in the regulation of its metabolism are the parathyroid glands, the kidneys, the skeleton, and the gut (Wysolmerski & Insogna 2007). Our body obtains the necessary amount of calcium from two major sources: diet (through intestinal absorption) and bones (through calcium mobilization). Foods that include a high amount of calcium are diary milk, cheese yogurt, and green vegetables. The amount of calcium people need varies: young people need a high intake, so that growth and development are assured. Older women need calcium supplementation in order to prevent osteoporosis. Calcium is absorbed in the very beginning of the small bowel: duodenum and the first portion of the jejunum. ...Show more