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Essay sample - Aristolochic Acid
Pages 11 (2761 words)
Aristolochic acid is made of a mixture of both aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II in a 1:1 ratio. Aristolochic acid is highly carcinogenic (cancer-causing) and nephrotoxic (harms the nephrons in the kidneys) . Normally, this type of acid is found in several natural, botanical products sold commonly as 'traditional medicines' and in diet-supplements/weight loss preparations …
Aristolochic acid (AA) is a known genotoxic mutagen and is generally derived from plant extracts and is formed from aristolochic acid I (AAI) and aristolochic acid II (AAII), [20, 22, 17, 25] it is potentially carcinogenic to most rodent species [12, 13, 5, 25] and in humans [6, 15, 25]. The formation of DNA adducts by Aristolochic acid (AA) gives it it's mutagenic and carcinogenic properties, due to the process of reductive metabolic activation where both types of AA's (AA I and AA II) react with the nucleic acids adenine and guanine [18, 19, 25].
Specimen exists at New York Botanical Gardens. Tropicos does not list this species as a synonym for any Thottea species. Kew Gardens Herbarium does not recognize the genera Bragantia. Until additional information is obtained we will use the name as cited in J. Nat. Products 45:657-666 (1982)
Using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method set at the dynamic mode, Aristolochic acids I and II can be extracted from medicinal plants. If the intended extracts will be extracted from medicinal plants, spiking (addition of enzymes or other catalytic substances) will not be done, but ultrasonic and Sohxlet extraction will both be done to determine the accuracy of the techniques. ...
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