Although, there is a global shortage of protein, the shortage is in developing countries which cannot afford this technology.
There are several advantages in using microorganisms as a food source. They occupy less room then conventional crops and animals; therefore they can grow on a wide range of cheap or waste products of agriculture and industry. They grow much more rapidly, are more easily modified by genetic engineering and so have relatively high protein content. They are independent of climate and do not occupy the large areas of land. There also are fewer ethical issues associated with there exploitation and no animal rights issues.
There are different uses of yeast and fungi; like it can produce dietary supplements known as single cell protein (SCP). Yeast species are efficient in producing large amounts of different types of vitamins and is also used in the commercial production of that vitamin. Other species like yeasts can also be utilized in brewing, which can absorb as well as store vitamins from their food. It is healthy for people to take yeasts as vitamin supplements. Yeast fungi can also produce huge amount of useful stuff such as numerous enzymes, industrial alcohol, glycerol and fat. The yeasts are also helpful in commercial production of these substances.
The Single Cell Protein (SCP) is produced by using bacteria, fungi, yeast or algae. SCP, for the time being, is very successful for using alternative cheaper proteins such as Soya bean, and lack of research into value-added products derived from microorganisms.
Recent studies show that autolysis is an efficient method of extracting protein from the yeast; the internal cell's enzymes actions can actually cause the breakdown of cell constituents. If yeast is exposed at a very high temperature, it can speed up the process of autolysis. In reality, getting the best result of the finished product (in terms of flavor, quality or yield), totally depends on the solubiliszation of the cell contents in autolysis; it is a vital and indispensable step. In spite of this significant process, there are few common understandings of these biological modifications which happen during autolysis. Furthermore, almost every study on yeast autolysis have only been conducted with only one Saccharomyces cerevisiae know as yeast specie,and no study have been done to know the autolysis reaction of different species. Yeast was treated in laboratory which fermented the production; presently a lot of research is in progress in the department of Chemical & Life Sciences which is also examining other species like Kluyveromyces marxianus (dairy yeast),as it can produce novel yeast extracts. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data) software is also assisting this procedure and the effect of reaction of the substance that is acted upon by an enzyme or ferment on consequential nutritive value and flavor enhancement is still being investigated.
According to the recent research it is been found that yeast which produce protein contains highly nutritional matter (up to 50% dry weight basis). Therefore, controlled conditions during autolysis will result in the activation of yeast proteases which degrade yeast proteins into soluble peptides and amino acids.
Another name of SCP is microbial protein or microbial food. Due to the