This research will begin with the statement that no examination of poverty would be complete without looking at the specific problem of single parenthood, especially single motherhood. It is a problem in the United States and all over the world, because children who are born to single mothers often have problems with educational achievement, and these households are often mired in poverty. And, since there is lower educational achievement among the children of these households, the poverty is liable to be pervasive, because lower educational achievement is correlated with less economic achievement. Moreover, at least in the United States, the poorer a woman is, the more likely she is to bear a child out of wedlock. This issue is, therefore, a serious one that should be properly addressed. One of the impacts that single-parenthood has on children is that they tend to have a lower educational achievement. For instance, Nock has studied single-parent households and he found that there was a “cumulative deficit in the number of years of schooling they complete”. Further, Nock found that the longer the child lives in a single-parent household, the greater the educational deficits. ... Milne et al. concur that children from single-parent households fare worse, with regards to educational achievement than children from two-parent homes, although they do not agree with the conclusion, advanced by Nock, that there is not mediating variables for this phenomenon. They found that students from two-parent families have higher reading and math achievement scores than do students from one-parent families. This was true for both black and white children. They also found, however, that the effects of living in a single-parent home versus living in a home with two parents were mitigated by other factors, including income. They also found that the total effects of living with two parents, versus one parent, is more pronounced in black children than in white children. They found that, with black children, income mediates more than for white children. They also found that, in white families, the mother tends to work less than in black families, and this, too, is a mediating factor. They also found that another mediating factor is the number of books in the home, and the educational expectations of the parents. What was also found by Milne et al.is that, for white children from two-parent homes, the mother’s employment has a negative effect on achievement, and, the more the mother works, the more pronounced is the negative effect. This was a consistent finding. However, in black families from single-parent homes, the mother working was a positive effect on achievement. This effect, both positive for black children from single-parent households, and negative for white children from two-parent households, is not mediated by the father’s educational attainment.